The Diesel engine and its development: A historical timeline by Martin Leduc

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The Diesel Engine and its development: A historical timeline
Authored / Compiled by Martin Leduc


Christian Huygens, a Dutch scientist, produces the first know heat engine from his inspiration of a cannon. Mr. Huygens place a cannon vertically, and used a piston instead of a cannonball. The cannon had exhaust valves near the top and the piston was attached to a weight by means of rope and pulley. He calculated that a .5 kg of gun powder could lift 1360 kg piston over nine meters. But the absence of a reliable fuel hampered its development.


In England, a patent for a Newcomen engine-powered steamboat is issued to Jonathan Hulls. But until improvements are made to the steam engines, by James Watt in 1821, the concept is found to be not feasible.


France’s Marquis Claude de Jouffroy, and his colleagues, successfully sail the first steamship on the Doubs River. The ‘Palmipède’, a 13 metre long vessel, is powered by rotating paddles.


In Virginia, USA, James Rumsey is granted a patent, one year after sailing the Potomac River in the first steam powered, pump-driven (water jet) boat.


Englishman John Barber receives the first patent for a basic turbine engine. The turbine was designed with a chain-driven, reciprocating type of compressor. It has a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine.


French chemist Phillipe Lebon develops a usable coal gas. Shortly after he patents a coal gas fired internal combustion engine.


The ‘Charlotte Dundas’ tows two 70-ton barges, 30 km, along the Forth and Clyde Canal to Glasgow. Not only was this vessel the first practical steamboat, but also the first tug boat.


Richard Trevithick built the first, albeit crude, locomotive using a steam engine mounted on a wagon riding steel rails.


The Malayan fire piston, originally from southeast Asia, is brought to Europe. It was a air pump type tube, when compressed would heat up the air and ignite a small clump of tinder.


William Cecil, 28 year old Fellow of Madeleine College, Cambridge, is the first to build an engine to run continuously. It uses a mixture of hydrogen and air (1:3) but soon abandons it when he is ordained in the Anglican church.


James Watt improves the efficiency of Newcomen’s reciprocating pump to become the most efficient (4%) prime mover using pistons and expanding steam. The engine become the most popular at the time and lasted for quite a while.


Sadi Carnot published his theory on the thermodynamic cycle of the heat engine. From it, Rudolph Diesel would design his engine.


‘Curacao’ built in Dover, England, becomes the first practical steamship to sail. It is bought by the Netherlands Navy. It is a wooden hull, 445 tonnes, paddle-wheeler with two engines developing 75 kW.


Machinefabriek Werkspoor is founded, in Amsterdam.


George Stephenson builds the ‘Rocket’. The first practical locomotive which made ten trips a day over a 2.4 km hauling a 13 tons at about 24 km/h for the Liverpool & Manchester Railway.


The Wartsila company begins operations, originally as a sawmill operation, in Tohmajärvi, Finland. Twenty years later it would later morph into an iron mill.


Italian inventors, Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci, are granted a patent, in London, for the first working, efficient version of an internal combustion engine. Nicolaus August Otto, would, however, go on to claim the bulk of the credit for the four cycle design, ten years later.


The first production engine is patented in Paris. Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir builds around 500 of these 7:1 air gas ratio engine. But they were prone to problems, due to their electric ignition.


Nicolaus August Otto and Eugen Langen form the N.A. Otto & Cie.


N.A. Otto & Cie. choose the Paris Exposition to introduce their first working engine. At first, the one cylinder “coffee grinder” design, with it’s horrible racket, scares away the judges; however they realized it was the most efficient engine of the exposition, and the engine takes first prize.


With many back orders for their successful engine, N.A. Otto & Cie. established a new plant. They called it Gasmotoren-Fabrik-Deutz, after the Deutz neighborhood of Koln, Germany. They hire a production manager, Gottlieb Daimler and an assistant Wilhelm Maybach. These three men, some of the greatest engineers who ever lived, now worked under one roof. Shortly after, Otto “comes up” with the four strokes of an internal combustion engine; intake, compression, ignition/expansion, and exhaust were all assigned a “stroke”; similar to the patent issued to Italian inventors in 1854.


George Brayton of the United States, patents the Brayton Ready Motor, a constant pressure internal combustion engine. After some modification of the fuel system, he is granted a patent in 1874, he reaches commercial success with the first practical working engine. The engine is used to power the first self propelled submarine, John Philippe Holland’s ‘Fienian Ram’ in 1881. The constant pressure cycle, know as the Brayton cycle – is the basis of Gas Turbines engines.


Otto’s new design is built. The one cylinder, flame ignited prototype is “handed over” to Maybach who develops it for production. It becomes know as the ‘Deutz A’ engine. With an efficiency of over 16% and quiet operation, it is issued a patent insuring it almost a virtual monopoly.


Dugald Clerk, a Scot, is granted a patent which lays down the groundwork for the two stroke compression engine design. It is demonstrates at Kilburn, England in 1879.


Karl Benz expands on Clerk’s ideas, and establishes Benz & Cie in Manheim to develop the engine idea. Deutz’s stranglehold on Germany sees to it that a patent is not granted to Benz’s ideas.


The 137 meter, 5,247 tonnes ‘Arizona’ is the first steam powered vessel to win the mythical “Blue Ribband”. The White Star Line steel hulled ship reached 32 km/h with her John Elder & Company ‘s 4,679 kW compound steam engines.


Daimler quits Deutz because of some contentious issues over patents with Otto. Maybach joins Daimler to research the possibility of a light weight, higher speed, internal combustion engine.


Deutz stranglehold on the basic patent of the internal combustion engine is reversed. A patent attorney for Geruber Korting finds a prior patent, laying out the exact cycles of the internal combustion engine. The French transportation engineer, Alphonse Beau de Rochas, had filed it on January 16, 1862.

Benz’s biggest problem, the magneto design, is remedied by Robert Bosch. The final prototype, the three wheeled ‘Dogcart’, is a success.


Rudolph Diesel, with his French connections, is the only German engineer invited to give a his paper, “Revue Technique de l’Exposition Universelle” at the International Engineering Congress.


Charles Parson founds, C. A. Parsons and Company in Newcastle, England, to produce turbo-generators to his design. The company’s first turbine was only 1.6% efficient and generated a mere 7.5 kilowatts.


Herbert Akroyd Stuart, born in Halifax, Canada in 1864, and Charles Richard Binney are granted patent # 7146, which described the world’s first compression-ignition engine. Their submission is called “Improvements in Engines Operated by the Explosion of Mixtures of Combustible Vapour or Gas and Air”. Stuart’s prototype engine is built at his father’s Bletchley Iron & Tin Plate Works at Bletchley, England. The rights to build the new engine are then leased to Richard Hornsby & Sons of Grantham. They go on to build ‘Hornsby engine #101’ and ‘#102’ which are installed at the Great Brickhill Waterworks, at Fenny Stratford, in May 1892. 32,417 various copies of the type are subsequently sold.


Rudolph Diesel draws his theories into a design, but it is decline a patent in Europe, at first. On appeal his “not original” idea is patented on February 28. Patent # 67027 is issued to Rudolph Diesel by the Imperial Patent Office in Germany. It was a design using much higher pressure to achieve Carnot’s ideal heat cycle. Sometime later, Diesel is granted a patent in the United States for the new engine.

German Carl Pieper introduces the helix on plunger to fuel injection system, allowing control of the fuel quantity delivered to a cylinder.


Benz’s engine the ‘Standhur’ (Upright clock) runs continuously at the Paris Expositions. The beginning of a long “work day” for it.

Rudolph Diesel rewrites his manuscript “The theory and construction of a rational heat engine to replace steam engine and contemporary combustion engine” to “Eines rationellen Warmenmotor” describing his theory of a heat engine with an estimated 70-80% efficiency. He is severely criticized by his peers, the “leading edge” German engineers. In July, Rudolph Diesel, assistant Lucian Vogel, and his father in law, Heinrich Buz at the Ausgburb Machine Works begin experimenting with Rudolph Diesel’s new prime mover.


February 17, Rudolph Diesel’s experimental engine runs at 88 rpm for about one minute, the first time ever, about 9 months after first “test firing”. Witte, Reid, and Fairbanks start building oil engines with a variety of ignition systems.


William H. Scott is granted an English patent for a double port helix for fuel injection pump. This development allows to control both the beginning and ending of fuel injection.


Work begins on the French submarine ‘Narval’, it is launched in 1899. It features a novel electric propulsion system using steam boiler as prime mover. The technology leads to the Diesel electric propulsion system of ‘l’Aigrette’ in 1904.


February 17, Diesel’s engine runs on its own. The water cooled, ringed piston, fuel injection, single cylinder engine ran on cheap kerosene. It was considered a total success. It produced 13.1 kW at 154 rpm, and achieved 26.2% efficiency. Mirrlees, Watson & Yaryman of Glasgow, among others, sign a deal to build the new prime mover from Rudolph Diesel.

Immanuelle Lauster, at Machinenfabrik Augsburg, designs and build the first twin cylinder prototype Diesel engine. It develops 44 kW at 180 rpm, this is achieved by increasing the size of the bore and stroke as well as other refinements. Charles Parson’s turbine-powered yacht, ‘Turbinia’, speeds past the Royal Navy’s fastest ships, at 34 knots, demonstrating its abilities during Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Fleet Review. Two years later the Royal Navy launches new steam turbine powered warships, and thus began the start of the marine steam turbine era.


June 10, Sulzer starts building it’s first Diesel engine A four stroke, 260mm cylinder, developing 14.7 kW. Burmeister & Wain (B&W) of Kohaven, Denmark retain rights to build the Diesel engine. As do Aldophus Busch (Budweiser beer in US) who sets up the Adolphus Busch’s Diesel Motor Company of America. Vickers Sons & Maxim Ltd of England and Gebruder Howalt-Werf are among others. Sweden financiers Marcus Wallenberg and Oscar Lamm set up AB Diesel Motorer. Emanuel Nobel, Swedish-Russian nephew of Alfred Nobel, acquires the rights to build the Diesel engine and promptly establishes the Russian Diesel Company of Nuremberg.


The first commercial Diesel engine is sold to Aktiengesellschaft Union, a matchmaking company in Kempten, near Ausgburg, Germany. It is one of Lauster’s twin cylinder design. It is delivered in January and started up on March 5. After fifteen years it still ran perfectly, without any major repairs.


After a successful exhibition of their engines, side by side, at the Munchen Power and Works Exhibit, Machinenfabrik Augsburg and Nurnberg decide to continue their partnership. The partnership’s name is shortened in 1904 to Machinefabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg, better known today as M.A.N.

In order to manage the explosive growth of the Diesel engine. Rudolph Diesel’s establishes a company to manage the licensing of the design. The new venture buys all patents and is tasked with the further developments and management of the new engine. It is called the General Diesel Corporation, and is founded on September 17. Rudolph Diesel is paid a sum of 3.5 million German marks.

September – The first Diesel engine in North America, is completed by Adolphus Busch’s American Diesel Engine Company (later known as Busch Sulzer Bros. Diesel Engine Co.)  in St Louis, Missouri. The two cylinder model produces 60 hp, and goes to work for the Anheuser – Busch Brewery (Budweiser beer) in St Louis, Missouri.


Rudolph Diesel develops the first fuel injection valve. ” It consisted of a mechanically operated valve surrounded by a stack of drilled discs, or “pulverizer” rings, on which the oil was deposited and then blown by compressed air into the engine cylinder during injection. ” (History of the Fuel Injector by Frank DeLuca)

The Diesel engine takes the “Grand Prix”, the highest prize, at the 1900 Paris Exposition. The exhibition was attended by 50 million people. Promoted by the French Government and N.A. Otto & Cie (Deutz), the engine runs on peanut oil, a form of bio diesel.


Adolphus Busch’s company build the first Diesel engine in the United States. It is a three cylinder, 55 kW model, which first ran in April. Fewer than 100 were sold, most of them without profit. Download the 1914 sales brochure documenting this company’s numerous installations that followed this milestone.

French submarine ‘l’Aigrette’ is launched with a Machinefabrik Ausgburg-Nurember (aka M.A.N.) licensed Diesel engine and electric propulsion. It is believed to be the first vessel to be powered by a Diesel engine. It would go on to influence submarine design in the UK, US, Germany and France as well as commercial vessel such as ‘Vandal’ and ‘Venoge’.

F. Rundlof invents the two stroke crankcase, scavenged hot bulb engine.


Sulzer begins engine manufacturing in Winterthur, Switzerland. Three years later, they offer a range of 12 engines with power from 11 to 440 kW.

Norwegian Aegidius Elling builds the first gas turbine, producing excess power. The turbine uses both a rotary compressor and turbine.


KW Hagelin, engineer in charge of Nobel’s marine division, oversees the building of ‘Vandal’. A 74.5 meter long, shallow draft tanker with a cargo capacity of 800 tons. A revolutionary design at the time. Three 500 VDC generators driven by 3 cylinder AB Diesels, supplied 88 kW each, at 240 rpm. These generators supplied power to 75 kW reversible DC motors. A setup almost identical to today’s locomotives.


Ancient Etablissment Sautter-Harle of Paris, licensed by Diesel in 1899, builds the first opposed piston, reversing engine. The four stroke, two cylinder, 16.6 liter engine develops 19 kW and was installed in the 38 meter Canal Ship ‘Petit Pierre’, which also boasted a variable pitch propeller. The firm’s next engines, larger versions of the previous design, were delivered to the French navy for installation into their submarines.

M.A.N. installs four DM4x100 diesel engines, with a total power of 1193 kW turning at 160 rpm, for the Kiev Municipal Transport Authority, the first power plant of its kind. At the time, the engines cost 854,000 German marks and remained in operation until 1955.

Sulzer installed their first diesel engine in a ship, the freight boat ‘Venoge’. It was much like the ‘Vandal’, but Sulzer was dissatisfied with the electric motor, the only way to get reverse. They go on to develop their two stroke, reversing engine. One year later…


The first two stroke, and the first direct reversible engine is built by Sulzer. It had four cylinders with a bore of 175 mm and stroke of 250 mm producing 66 kW. It is on exhibit at the Milano World Exposition in 1906.

Swiss engineer Dr. Alfred J. Büchi, files a patent application for “a highly supercharged compound engine”, essentially the first idea for a turbo-charger.


Rudolph Diesel’s patent in Europe expires. A flood of new engine building begins.

Nobel Brothers builds the first four stroke reversible engine.


350 dwt cargo ships ‘Rapp’ and ‘Schnapp’, coastal schooner by design have Swedish A.B. Motorer engine installed as auxiliary propulsive power. The 89 kW, 300 rpm reversible engines are the first commercial sea-going application of diesel engines.


In 1907, Benz & Cie entices a young Lebanese engineer, Prosper L’Orange, from Deutz. He goes on to design the pre-combustion chamber. Making the Diesel engine run smoother and quieter, but with a slight loss of fuel economy.


James McKechnie of Vickers in England, develops the first solid injection fuel system. The design is still very much in use to day; it comprises of a metering pump, operated by the cam lobe, delivering fuel oil which was then injected into the engine cylinder, by a fuel valve.

The ‘Fram’ receives it’s 132kW engines from AB Diesel Motorer of Sickla, Sweden. The ship carries Roald Amundsen to the Antarctic. He becomes the first man to reach the South Pole on December 14, 1911. AB goes on to adopt the Polar trademark.


Sulzer builds a larger version of their 1905 engine, ushering in the age of the large slow speed two stroke engine; quite a bit larger. The one cylinder, with a meter diameter piston turns at a leisure pace of 150 rpm. It produces an astounding 1472 kW. Shortly after, they begin ‘Selandia’ – the first diesel engine powered ship building a four cylinder version to produce 2760 kW.

A British patent is issued to Frederick Lamplough for a unit fuel injector. The idea was first floated by Carl Weidman of Germany in 1905. The unit injector does away with troublesome tubing from the pressure pump to the fuel injector. A Winton engine would feature the new style injection system, but not until 1931; in 1934, GM would adopt the unit injector for its two stroke high speed diesels.


Hamburg Sud cargo liner, the ‘Monte Penedo’, launched several days before the ‘Selandia’ was completed, and is the first ship to be powered by two stroke engines. The two Sulzer engines developed a combined 1250 kW at 160 rpm.

‘Selandia’ was completed several days after the ‘Monte Penedo’, but it is often credited as being the ‘true’ first 2 stroke Diesel powered ship.

February 14, Burmeister & Wain (B&W) builds the 7,000 DWT ocean-going motor ship ‘Selandia’, for the Danish East Asiatic Company. It is credited for starting a revolution in shipping and ship design by being the first ocean going motor ship even though it was completed several days after the ‘Monte Penedo’. It is launched on November 4, 1911, and has two B&W ‘DM8150X’, four stroke, reversible engines developing 932 kW each, at 140 rpm. The ship design ushers in a new era; one without a traditional funnel, casting away the old steam ship funnels or sails of the past.

Sulzer ‘1S100’, with a bore of 1 meter holds the title of the largest bore engine for almost 60 years.

The first Diesel locomotive, weighing 80 tonne, is built by Sulzer, Krupp, and the Prussian & Saxon State Railway.

Sulzer installs two Exhaust Gas Economizer in their engine installation at a wool mill, in Burglen, Switzerland, increasing the mill’s overall fuel efficiency to a reported 82%. Prof. J. Cochand, of Lausanne and Engineer M. Hottinger, of Winterthur, Switzerland, issues their findings of in a report published in the “Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure”.

The Diesel patent expires in the US. New companies spring up to build their versions of the engine. Allis-Chalmers and Nordberg in Milwaukee, Fairbanks-Morse in Beloit and Worthington Cudahy – all in Wisconsin, heart of the dairy states, a popular place for German immigrants. As well Busch-Sulzer set up shop in St Louis, and Winton in Cleveland.

Sulzer tinkers with their ‘1S100’, an experimental engine. It has a bore of 1 meter and holds the title of the engine with the largest bore, for almost 60 years.

Otto F. Persson of the United States patents the tight fitting plunger and barrel design for high pressure fuel pump, elimination the packing glands used to seal high pressure fuel injection pumps.


The first revenue earning locomotive is built by ASEA for Sweden’s Melersta Sodermanslands Railway.

Hugo Junkers, an aeronautical engineer, builds a four cylinder lightweight Diesel engine for an aircraft. Shortly after, a six cylinder was producing 368 kW at 2400 rpm.

Vickers, Ltd. develops the common rail system. ” A multi-plunger pump delivered fuel to an accumulator and header of large capacity with the fuel pressure maintained at about 5000 psi by a relief valve, and the fuel was sprayed into the engine cylinders through mechanically operated injection nozzles. Fuel metering was controlled by varying the period of opening of the injection valves.” (History of the Fuel Injector by Frank DeLuca)


Sulzer develops piston cooling and scavenging for their two stroke engine.

Francois Feyens of Belgium, introduces the rotary distributor injection system, to deliver metered fuel to the several cylinders of a multi-cylinder engine. The system would be installed on the ‘Selandia’ on its first voyage to the far east.

The Diesel powered German U-boat, ‘U-9’, meets and sinks the British cruisers ‘Aboukir’, ‘Cressey’, and ‘Hogue’ off the Dutch coast in less than one hour. The Diesel powered submarine could no longer be ignored.


Swiss engineer Dr. Alfred J. Büchi, Chief Engineer of Sulzer Brothers Research Department, proposes the first prototype of a turbocharged diesel engine. He had been working on the design since 1909. Even with a 40% increase in an engine’s efficiency, his idea was not well received.

Swiss engineer Dr. Alfred J. Büchi, proposes the first prototype of a turbocharger.


Hugo Junkers unveils the ‘Jumo’, a six cylinder opposed piston aircraft engine. It is installed in the ‘Dornier Do18’ flying boat. The ‘Deutsche Lufthansa Do18’ break the long distance flight record to Caravellas, Brasil from the English Channel.

In 1909, Jonas Hesselman of AB Diesel Motorer and Harry Leissner at Lujussne-Woxna were working on a solid fuel injection system. It is not until 1919 that Prosper L’Orange brings it all together. He successfully incorporates fuel injection in Benz’s one cylinder, giving us a smooth running engine.


Clessie L Cummins begins operations in the United States, backed by investment banker William Glanton Irwin. He purchases manufacturing rights to the Diesel engine from the Dutch licensor Hvid.

Sir Harry Ricardo pioneers the swirl chamber, a slightly different combustion chamber than Mr. L’Orange‘s design.

Atlas Imperial Diesel Company of Oakland, California builds the first American Diesel engine with common rail injection system.


Enterprise, in the US, builds it’s first engine, it later becomes a division of DeLaval. Atlas-Imperial of Oakland, Union, and Lister are other companies that start appearing in the 1920’s, building Diesels engines.

William Oxford & Sons, at the time the second largest yard in Great Britain, abandons building ships with steam propulsion, in favour of Diesel engine powered ships.


Benz & Cie’s stationary engine division becomes it’s own company. It becomes the Motoren-Werke Manhein AG better known as MWM.

The Robert Bosch Company of Stuttgart, Germany, focuses its business activities to specialized in the design and manufacturing of fuel injection equipment. In 1927, they introduce a jerk pump, with helix control, for which Ottmar Bauer is granted a patent in 1931. Up to now, Diesel engine builders were mostly manufacturing their own fuel injection systems, to varying success.

Electro-Motive Engineering Company, the genesis of the “Steam Dragon Slayer”, EMD, is founded by Harold L. Hamilton and Paul Turner in Cleveland, Ohio.


General Electric, American Locomotive and Ingersoll Rand collaborate to produce a Diesel powered switcher engine. It works around the clock at New York Central’s yard, operating for only ten cents per kilometre. A refined model becomes the first commercially produced units. They are bought by the Jersey Central Railroad remaining in service at the Bronx yard for 30 years.

Peugeot installs the first Diesel engine in their car.


The Brown, Boveri and Company (BBC) delivers the first exhaust gas turbo-charger for a large diesel engine. The VT402 is delivered to Sulzer.

Benz & Cie introduces their transport truck, the ‘5K3’. M.A.N. introduces it’s competition five months later.

Fairbanks Morse builds its first commercial, high-compression, cold-start, full Diesel engine, the ‘Y-VA’, without resorting to any foreign patent acquisition. Fairbanks Morse begin supplying the US Navy with marine Diesel propulsion plants in 1932, and supplied many marine Diesels to the Navy during WWII, especially for submarines.


The Caterpillar Company is the result of a merger of Holt Manufacturing Company of Stockton, California and the C. L. Best Gas Traction Company of San Leandro, California.


Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co. Ltd. (MES), a division of Japanese shipbuilder Mitsui & Co., enters a technical licensing agreement with Burmeister & Wain on August 13th. The company builds its first B&W engine in 1928, a four-stroke, single-acting, trunk type ‘6125M’ unit. In March 2008 – 81 years later – the partnership celebrates a milestones; 60 million of B&W MAN licensed BHP (horsepower) are delivered to clients by MES.

Daimler and Benz merge. The corporate name remained Daimler-Benz until the brief merger with Chrysler formed DaimlerChrysler in 1998, dissolved in 2007. However, from the turn of the century Daimler cars in Germany were called Mercedes, not Daimler (although Daimler patent licensees used Daimler as automobile brand name in Austria and England); upon merger with Benz, which built cars under the Benz name, the cars that the new Daimler-Benz firm produced became Mercedes-Benz – the brand emblem, a three-pointed star surrounded by a wreath – merged Mercedes and Benz brand symbols. They introduce the new ‘5K3’ model which includes the new, Robert Bosch designed, glow plugs.


Continuing on Fritz Lang’s injection system, Robert Bosch simplifies and improves the fuel injection system for it’s debut in the Mercedes Benz ‘OM5’ truck. By now most of the world’s freight moves by Diesel powered truck.


In Indianapolis, Clessie Cummins manages to fit his 6.25 litres Diesel engine into a 1925 Packard, seven passenger car. He drives it to New York for the Auto Show where he gets the “cold shoulder” officially – but Ford and GM executives ask for private demonstration.

Kawasaki and Mitsubishi of Japan sign licensing agreements with M.A.N. Kawasaki later signs agreements with Mitsui.

General Motor buys the Adam Opel AG Company, in the 1930s, the largest car producer in Europe.

General Motors Corporation buys the Electro-Motive Company and the Winton Engine Company, the units would become Electro Motive Division (EMD) in 1941


Clessie Cummins installs his Diesel in a race car. It runs at 162 km/h in Daytona, and 138 km/h in Indianapolis where it places 12th.

Winton is the first diesel engine to use a unit fuel injection system. Designed by C.D. Salisbury, the system does away with separate fuel pump and injector, and its connecting pipe work.

Caterpillar introduces the ‘1C1’ Diesel engine crawler tractor. Although more expensive than its rivals, they sell about 10,000 units, 90% of these having Diesel engines. The Cleveland Tractor Company and International Harvester follow the example shortly after.


In Manchester England, L Gardner & Sons’ Hugh and Joseph Gardner, inspired by Mr. Cummins, install a Gardner 4LW Diesel in a 1925 ‘Bentley Saloon’. With a top speed of 128 km/h, they enter the car in the 1933 Monte Carlo Rally. They are encouraged to build a new lightweight engine, although the new idea was not readily accepted.

CL Cummins installs a Diesel engine in a Mack 10 tonne bus. They proceed to drive across the US, 5181 km, in 78 hours 10 minutes. Faster than any other form of transport – train and such, and all for $21.80 in fuel cost.

The ‘Flying Hamburger’ garnishes newsreel and tabloid attention because of its radical design and performance. The Zeppelin Aircraft Works used wind tunnel testing to determine the styling of the ‘Flying Hamburger’. While the two 300 kW Maybach V12 engines, propelled the train to 198.5 km/h, it’s regular service speed was around 160 km/h.


Unlike Cummins and Gardner, Daimler-Benz built cars as opposed to converting existing one to Diesel power. They took the risk and introduced the ‘Manheim’, powered by a noisy version of their truck engine. It is not well received at the 1934 Berlin Auto Show. Undaunted, they redesign the idea and introduce the ‘260D’. With it’s combination of medium size sedan look and excellent fuel economy, it becomes a commercial success.

Atlas-Imperial Diesel Engine Company of California introduces a fuel injection system, utilizing a common rail principal and an electro-magnetic fuel injection nozzle valve, designed by Harry E. Kennedy The idea was first proposed by fellow American Thomas T. Gaff in 1913.

M.A.N. Begins development on their exhaust gas turbine.


Arthur Fielden is granted a U.S. patent for a unit fuel injector design. It is adopted by General Motors for use in their two-cycle diesel engine.

May 26, the ‘Pioneer Zephyr’, modeled after the ‘Flying Hamburger’, breaks all speed and distance records on it’s run between Denver, Co. and Chicago, Il. The all stainless steel train averages 125 km/h over the 1633 km journey.


B&W builds the first four stroke engine to burn Heavy Fuel Oil.


General Motors forms a new division – Detroit Diesel Engine Division, they mostly build the popular inline ’71 Series’, a high speed two stroke engine, from a one to six cylinder configuration.

Wartsila signs a license agreement to build diesel engines with Friedrich Krupp Germania Werft AG, in Germany.


1939 Dodge Division of Chrysler Corporation becomes the first U.S. vehicle producer to design and build its own Diesel trucks with engines of its own design and manufacture.

General Motor Corporation launches an aggressive campaign to slay the “fiery dragon of railroading” – the steam locomotive. They build the ‘EMC #103’, a four unit, 59 meter long behemoth, painted in “” with a yellow stripe and “GM” stylized on the front. This locomotive was also the launch of GMC’s 567 series of Diesel engine, driving sixteen axles delivering to the rails 1969 kW of power; they also support the 408,000 kg, the heaviest locomotive at that time.

Karl writes us in September, 2014, clarifying some items on the timeline…
” The first FT debuted in November 1939 (road number 103) so it really ought to be covered in 1939, not 1930. This was also the debut of the 567 engine. While GM was painted on the nose of #103, the sides said Electro-Motive and most references call it EMC 103 (later EMD 103), not GM 103. It’s also known as “The Diesel That Did It” for its success in convincing railroads to replace steam locomotives, though of course that nickname came later. I’ve never encountered the “fiery dragon of railroading” phrase before but perhaps they did use it then.
#103 was painted dark green, not grimy black, with yellow stripes.
It was, as you note, four units. They were in two semi-permanently coupled pairs; the FT model designation stems from F for Freight and T for Twenty-seven hundred horsepower; each unit was rated at 1350 HP so the T is for an AB pair while #103 was an ABBA set. Later, the drawbar joining each AB half was replaced by couplers and the four units became separate locomotives.
The full ABBA set may have been heavier than any other locomotive built to that point, but at an average of 102,000 kg or 112.5 tons, each unit was not particularly notable for its weight. Southern Pacific had later ABBA sets of F-units which were nominally 124 tons (112,500 kg) per unit or 450,000 tons for the set. I’m sure there were others that were as heavy or heavier but I happen to have the SP data handy. “

World War I begins in Europe.


General Motor Corporation spins its acquisition of Winton and EMC in 1930, into a new entity called the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors (EMD).


The natural gas powered Danish fishing boat, ‘Frank FN282’ is launched. The vessel is equipped with a 2-cylinder, 90/100hp, Alpha Diesel type 342 engine, customized for ‘dual fuel’ operation, with oil injection as the pilot fuel igniting the gas charge.

Wartsila’s first diesel engine comes out of the Turku factory in November.


M.A.N. unveils the first four stroke supercharged engine to reach 45% efficiency.

Prosper L’Orange son, Rudolph L’Orange’s company, Gebroder L’Orange Motorzubehor GmbH, is granted a patent for the unit injector. The patent is a result of work performed with the assistance of Karl Maybach, started in 1944. The unit injector is capable of injecting fuel at 1000 bar, up to 2000 times per minute.


Maersk’s 18,000 ton tanker, Dorthe Maersk, the first ship to be powered by a turbo-charged two stroke Diesel engine, is launched by AP Moller shipyard in Denmark.


Cummins unveils PT (pressure-time) fuel injection system.


GM Diesel Engine Division introduces the ’53 Series’ of two strokes engines. They also begin to offer the popular ’71 Series’ engine in V configurations. The series number refers to the swept volume of the cylinder 71 cubic inch, 53 cubic inch.


The Peugeot 403 is introduced. The four cylinder Diesel powered car revives the car maker, battered from the second world war. The engine uses the licensed Ricardo swirl chamber design. In April 1970, the Lille Peugeot Plant builds it’s millionth Diesel engine.


The large icebreaker ‘Lenin’ (pictured right) is launched in the Soviet Union; first civilian ship to use nuclear propulsion. The original power plant, consisted of three ‘OK-150’ reactors, delivering 90 megawatts of power each. In 1970, the original reactors are replaced, due to to physical damaged to the reactor from refueling work, with two ‘OK-900’ reactors putting out 171 MW each. Steam generated by the reactors produced electricity in four turbo generators, driving three propellers.


Not to be outdone by the Soviets, the United States, under the Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace program, launches the first “commercial” nuclear powered cargo ship. ‘NS Savannah’ is a beautiful ship, and powered by a Babcock & Wilcox nuclear reactor, producing 74mw of thermal power. The single propeller driven by two steam turbine, produced 20,300 shaft horsepower, to propel the nearly 600 feet, 13,599 grt ship at a top speed of 24 knots. Built at a cost of $80 Million USD, she had accommodations for 60 passengers, and cargo room for 14,040 tons, and could sail at 20 knots for 300,000 km without refueling.


GM Diesel Engine Division changes its name to the Detroit Diesel Engine Division and introduces the ‘149 Series’ of two strokes engines.


1966 EMD introduced the ‘645’ engine. V8, V12, V16, even a V20; Turbocharged or not, power ratings were 1,500 HP V-12 non-turbocharged, 1,500 HP V-8 turbocharged, 2,300 HP V-12 turbocharged, 2,000 HP V-16 non-turbocharged, and 3,000 HP V-16 turbocharged. EMD also built a turbocharged V-20 that produced 3,600 HP for the ‘SD-45’ that was their first twenty cylinder engine. The final variant of the sixteen cylinder 645 (the 16-645F) produced 3,500 HP. EMD engines were adopted from the rail industry, and fitted into many workboats and tugs in North America.

Wartsila’s Turku Shipyard is officially born.


The first merchant ship to be powered by an aircraft type gas turbine, the ‘Admiral William M Callaghan’, is launched by Sun Shipbuilding in the United States.

The first merchant ship to be powered by an aircraft type gas turbine, the ‘Admiral William M Callaghan’, is launched by Sun Shipbuilding in the United States. The US military sealift ship is powered by two General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, which propelled the 24,500 ton ship to more than 21 knots.


The first resilient mounts are used in engine installations by B&W.


Detroit Diesel merges with transmission and gas turbine maker, Allison, to form the Detroit Diesel Allison Division.

The U.S. government passed the Clean Air Act.


Opel introduces the Opel GT coupe. It is the company’s first Diesel powered car. They install a small turbo charger to their new 2 litre engine; it develops 70 kW. On June 1 and 2, the Opel GT breaks 18 international speed records with it’s top speed of 197.5 km/h.


Burmeister & Wain launched the new ‘Selandia’ for the same customer as the original ‘Selandia’. It serves to illustrate the dramatic pace of ship and engine development. The new ‘Selandia’ is two and a half times longer, twice as wide, at 50 km/h, is two and half times faster. It’s three Diesel turbo charged, two stroke engine produced a total of 55,200 kW.

I read your history of diesel engines. Being an engineer myself and Swedish I couldn’t resist noting that you mentioned M/S Selandia. Built 1972, having 3 diesel engines of 55 something MW. Selandia had one 12-cylinder and two 9-cylinder Götaverken engines. At the same time Swedish shipping company Broströms built M/S Nihon with 8 more MW, with two 10 cylinder doing average speed of 32 knots on its maiden voyage around the world . Consuming 320 metric ton of fuel per 24 hours she had no traditional separators but 8 centrifuges that took out most of the impurities in the fuel. I have many friends that worked on this ship and I have been working as service personal on this ship myself.” Hans-Olof Hansson , Gothenburg , Sweden


The Brown, Boveri and Company (BBC) introduce the supercharger, known as the Comprex AWS. A mechanically driven air pump, based on a German patent developed under the supervision of Professor Max Berchtold at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.

The oil crisis begins when OPEC reduces supplies of crude creating a price spike.


Wartsila lays the foundation for a new shipyard in Perno, Turku.

Detroit Diesel Allison Division introduces the ’92 Series’ of high speed, two stroke engines.


Mercedes introduces the ‘300D’. The in-line five cylinder Diesel engine was radical for it’s time. The 3005 cc developed 59 kW at 4000 rpm, and it boast an overhead chain driven camshaft. The Bosch fuel pump delivered fuel to a Prosper L’Orange styled combustion chamber and started and stopped with the turn of a key.


Volkswagen adapts various popular technology to introduce it’s four cylinder Diesel engine. The four cylinder, 1471 cc, producing 37 kW at 5000 rpm is installed in their Golf. The engine is coupled to a front wheel drive assembly. Its advertising claims state it’s the quickest accelerating Diesel car.

Mercedes stuns the automotive world by building the fastest car. The Diesel powered ‘C-111’ set the new speed record at 253 km/h, averaged over 24 hours. The engine is equipped with a small Garret Airsearch turbo charger to produce 147 kW at 4200 rpm from only three litres of displacement.


GM’s Oldsmobile division introduce their sedan with an 89 kW, pushrod V8 Diesel engine. It is adapted form a standard gas counterparts. They soon offer the engine in the 1978 GMC and Chevrolet pick ups. With the energy crisis of the seventies, it sparks an automotive revolution, where gas engine had previously dominated. Companies which had never marketed the efficient Diesel powered cars began to do so.

The ERDA’s Energy Research Center in Oklahoma backs ups research by other independent researchers, confirming the dramatic fuel savings of the efficient Diesel engine comparatively to its gas counterparts. Figures of 43%, 25%, 35% in savings are declared, as well the cleaner burning Diesel gains popularity because of its lower emissions.

Murphy Diesel of Milwaukee agrees to market MWM engines.


Wartsila acquires 51% of the NOHAB diesel business from Bofors in Sweden, marking the beginning of Wartsila’s international manufacturing operations. The remaining shares are acquired in 1984.


M.A.N. and B&W merge to become MAN B&W Diesel A/S, Copenhagen.

EMD introduces the ‘710’ series engine, a two-stroke diesel engine with a ‘710’ cubic inch (11.63 liter) displacement per cylinder. Since its introduction, EMD has continually upgraded the ‘710G’ diesel engine. Power output increased from 3,800 horsepower (2,800 kW) on 1984’s ’16-710G3A’ to 4300 horsepower (as of 2006) on the ’16-710G3C-T2′. Although primarily used in locomotives, many copies of these engines can be found on North American workboats and tugs.

The ‘Fair Sky’ is launched by French builders, for Italian cruise line Sitmar. The ship is the last passenger ship to be built as a steam ship. Her power plant consist of three boilers, and three steam turbines, producing 29,500 shp, for a top speed of 21.8 knots, while consuming 220 tons of fuel a day.


MTU acquires the L’Orange company, producers of fuel injection equipment.

Deutz acquires MWM


The world’s largest Diesel electric propulsion plant is installed in the passenger liner ‘Queen Elizabeth II’. The steam systems is removed and nine, four stroke MAN L58/64, super charged, nine cylinder engines are installed, delivering a total of 94.5 MW. The engines drive alternators producing electricity for hotel service and the two 400 tons, 44 MW propulsion motors.

The Series 60 engine is introduced by the Detroit Diesel Corporation. The four stroke, six cylinder engine is a marked departure from their two stroke roots, for which the company was “famous” for. The engine is used widely in replacing its two stroke predecessor in the “on road” transportation sector, primarily in North America. A survival move by the company, faced with ever increasing regulatory emission framework being introduced. They later introduce the Series 50 engine, another four stroke engine design.


MAN B&W acquires the French engine maker SEMT Pielstick.


Wartsila Diesel acquires French high speed diesel builder SACM. They also acquire a majority holding in the Dutch company Stork Werkspoor, which produces medium-speed engines.


Metra is born in Tohmajärvi, Finland, with the merger of Wartsila and Lohja. The Scandinavian manufacturing powerhouses spits out various parts of itself, and others, into various popular brands such as Nokia, SKF, to name a few.


MTU’s L’Orange introduces the first electronic common rail system for large bore diesel engines. The system later goes into mass production in 2001.

Metra Corporation, Fincantieri Metra and Fincantieri agree on the merger of Wartsila Diesel, New Sulzer Diesel and Diesel Ricerche. The new company is called Wartsila NSD Corporation. The merger also includes a 40% share of Grandi Motori Trieste SpA, of which Fincantieri owns another part.


EMD builds its first line of four stroke engine, the ‘265’. Unlike its relatives, the ‘265’ is named after the cylinder bore size, rather then the cylinder displacement (567, 645, 710). The twin turbo, four stroke, V16 with a 265 mm (10.4 in) bore and a 300 mm (11.8 in) stroke, produces 6,300 bhp (4,700 kW) at 1000 rpm. Allowing the company to conform to tightening emissions standards.

P&O Nedlloyd accept delivery of the 6,674 teu container ship ‘P&O Nedlloyd Southampton’. The first ship to be powered by the 12 cylinder Sulzer RTA96C with an output of 65,880 kW.


Wartsila NSD acquires the remaining shares of both Grandi Motori Trieste SpA and Stork Werkspoor.

Not to be outdone, the B&W 12K98MC-C with an output of 68,640 kW is sold by the Dutch engine maker.

Martin Leduc creates Martin’s Marine Engineering Page, a website dedicated to the prime mover and it’s application in ships and the marine world.


MAN B&W acquires ALSTOM’s Diesel engine business consisting of the long established Mirrlees Blackstone, Ruston and Paxman brands.

Metra acquires the remaining shares of Wartsila NSD Corporation from Fincantieri, and later in September, changes its official name to simply, Wartsila. This culminates a major trend of the previous decade which saw the consolidation of many “marquee” engine brands into two dominate powerhouses, Wartsila and MAN B&W.

Daimler Chrysler AG purchases Detroit Diesel Corporation, merging it with their MTU Friedrichshafen and Mercedes-Benz industrial engines businesses, creating the Daimler Chrysler Powersystems Division.


Nearly 36% of newly registered cars in Western Europe had diesel engines. By way of comparison: in 1996, diesel-powered cars made up only 15% of the new car registrations in Germany. Austria leads the league table of registrations of diesel-powered cars with 66%, followed by Belgium with 63% and Luxembourg with 58%.


Wartsila acquires marine propulsion systems supplier, John Crane Lips. They will later move the Dutch manufacturing operations (LIPS) to china in 2010.


MAN B&W introduces the ‘ME’ engine. The slow speed two stroke engine does away with the traditional camshaft, replacing it with electronically controlled actuators.


Wartsila announces the forthcoming end of engine production in Turku, Finland; the bulk of the operation is moved to Italy, in 2006.

Wartsila introduces their new dual fuel engine, diesel – gas, the Wartsila 46DF.

Wartsila acquires Deutz. Wartsila continues to voraciously gobble up numerous “minor” companies, producing a myriad of ship systems and services.


The AUDI R10 race car powered by a V12, 5.5l twin turbo, Diesel engine with common rail injection (1600bars) which develops 485kW. June, AUDI ‘R10’ race car wins the 24hrs LeMans (France) endurance race. The ‘R10’ is powered by a V12, 5.5l twin turbo, Diesel engine with common rail injection (1600bars) which develops 485kW.

MAN B&W Diesel licensee Hyundai Heavy Industries in Korea built the 12K98MC engine with 101,640 bhp (75,793 kW) output. The first diesel engine with more than 100,000 bhp goes into service on February 22. MAN B&W Diesel licensee Hyundai Heavy Industries in Korea built the 12K98MC engine with 101,640 bhp (75,793 kW) output. The engines are installed in series of 9,000 teu container ships for Greece based Costamare.

Tognum acquires MTU

August, AP Moller Maersk Group launches the ‘Emma Maersk’ from their Danish “Odense Steel Shipyard” at Munkebo, by far the world’s largest container ship; the first in a series of eight 11,000 TEU ships (officially – 14,500 teu est). It is powered by a 14 cylinder Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C flex type Diesel engine developing just over 107,000 hp (80,000 kW) of propulsion power.


The Dieselmax of British construction machine manufacturer JCB, achieves a top speed of 563 kilometres per hour at the ‘Bonneville Salt Flats’ in the US, making it the fastest Diesel vehicle in the world, breaking the 1973 record. The Dieselmax is powered by two 4.4 litre JCB Diesel engines producing a total power of 1,119 kW.


March – The German City of Augsburg celebrates Rudolph Diesel’s 150th birthday on March 18, with an extensive series of events.


The European Union approves the HERCULES-Beta Project; with Wartsila and MAN Diesel leading the project. It is a major international cooperative effort to maximize fuel efficiency, combined with ultra-low emissions, and to develop future generations of optimally efficient and clean marine diesel engines.


Caterpillar acquires EMD (Electro Motive Division)

Caterpillar acquires Germany’s MWM (Motoren-Werke Mannheim) from 3i a private equity management company, who had bought the company from Deutz in 2007. Cat rolls the acquisition into its electrical power division, as MWM principally produces multi fuel, cogeneration diesel engines based plants.


January – Long time MAN licensee, Hitachi Zosen, test the first large two stroke diesel engine to be fully compliant to the IMO’s Tier III – a strict set of environmental emission regulations. The engine, built at the Ariake Works, in Southern Japan, is a MAN B&W 6S46MC-C8 type with an output of 7 megawatts, and boast an 80% reduction in NOx gases, using a SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) systems.

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16.02 –  ^  Complete Guide to Outboard Motor Service & RepairPaul Dempsey B
16.02 –  ^  Complete Powerboating ManualTim Bartlett & Simon Collis B
16.02 –  ^  Concrete BoatbuildingGainor W. Jackson B
16.02 –  ^  Cost Conscious CruiserLin & Larry Pardey B
16.02 –  ^  Diesel Engine MechanicsWayne A. Kelm B
16.02 –  ^  Diesel EnginesJ. W. Anderson B
16.02 –  ^  Diesel TroubleshootierDon Seddon B
16.02 –  ^  Diesels Afloat : The Must-Have Guide for Diesel Boat EnginesPat Manley B
16.02 –  ^  Don Casey's Complete Illustrated Sailboat Maintenance ManualDon Casey B
16.02 –  ^  Electrical Handbook for RVs‚ Campers‚ Vans‚ Boats & TrailersHerb Gill B
16.02 –  ^  Electrics AfloatAlir Garrod B
16.02 –  ^  Engines Afloat : From Early Days to D-Day Vol 2Stan Grayson B
16.02 –  ^  Essential Boat MaintenancePat Manley & Rupert Holmes B
16.02 –  ^  Fiberglass Boat Survey ManualArthur Edmunds B
16.02 –  ^  GammelmotorenValdemar Steiro B
16.02 –  ^  Handling Troubles Afloat : What to Do When It All Goes WrongJohn Mellor B
16.02 –  ^  Handyman Afloat & AshoreKen Bramham B
16.02 –  ^  How To Repair Diesel EnginesPaul Dempsey B
16.02 –  ^  Inboard Motor InstallationsGlen L. Witt & Ken Hankinson B
16.02 –  ^  Inspecting the Aging SailboatDon Casey B
16.02 –  ^  Internal Combustion Engines — USCG B
16.02 –  ^  Inboard Engine‚ Transmission and Drive Service : ManualIntertec B
16.02 –  ^  Kawasaki Jet Ski Shop Manual‚ 1976-1988Ron Wright B
16.02 –  ^  Know Your Boat's Diesel EngineAndrew Simpson B
16.02 –  ^  Look Inside : Cross-Sections · SHIPS — Moira Butterfield B
16.02 –  ^  MaintenanceTime-Life B
16.02 –  ^  Managing 12 Volts : How to Upgrade‚ Operate‚ and TroubleshootHarold Barre B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Diesel Basics — Dennison Berwick B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Diesel Engines : Maintenance‚ Troubleshooting‚ and RepairNigel Calder B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Diesel Engines : Maintenance & Repair ManualJean-Luc Pallas B
16.02 –  ^  Marine DieselsM. David Burghardt & George D. Kingsley B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Electrical Care & RepairDavid MacLean B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Electrical Electronics BibleJohn C. Payne B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Electrical SystemsDIY Boat Owner Magazine B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Engine Room Blue BookWilliam D. Eglinton B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Engines & PropulsionRanger Hope B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Fire Prevention‚ Firefighting and Fire SafetyUS DoC MA B
16.02 –  ^  Marine InvestigationsDavid Pascoe B
16.02 –  ^  Marine Metals ManualRoger Pretzer B
16.02 –  ^  Metal Corrosion In BoatsNigel Warren B
16.02 –  ^  Metals Handbook — ASM B
16.02 –  ^  Modern Boat MaintenanceBo Streiffert (Ed) B
16.02 –  ^  Motor Boat EnginesAlan C. Wilson B
16.02 –  ^  NYNEX Boaters DirectoryNYNEX B
16.02 –  ^  Oars‚ Sails and SteamEdwin Tunis B
16.02 –  ^  Outboard Motors Maintenance and Repair ManualJean-Luc Pallas B
16.02 –  ^  Powerboat Care and RepairAllen D. Berrien B
16.02 –  ^  Powerboater's Guide to Electrical Systems (Boating Magazine)Edwin R. Sherman B
16.02 –  ^  Practical Small Powerboat MaintenanceAllen D. Berrien B
16.02 –  ^  Preliminary Design of Boats & ShipsCyrus Hamlin B
16.02 –  ^  Primitive BenchmarkJerry N. Selness B
16.02 –  ^  Propeller HandbookDave Gerr B
16.02 –  ^  Quick & Easy Boat Maintenance : 1‚001 Time-Saving TipsSandy Lindsey B
16.02 –  ^  Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting HandbookBarry Pickthall B
16.02 –  ^  Reeds Outboard Motor Troubleshooting HandbookBarry Pickthall B
16.02 –  ^  Refrigeration For PleasureboatsNigel Calder B
16.02 –  ^  Replacing Your Boat's Engine (Adlard Coles Manuals)Mike Westin B
16.02 –  ^  Run Your Diesel Vehicle on BiofuelsJon Starbuck & Gavin D. j. Harper B
16.02 –  ^  Running FixTony Gibbs BF
16.02 –  ^  RYA Book of Diesel EnginesTim Bartlett B
16.02 –  ^  RYA Book of Outboard MotorsTim Bartlett B
16.02 –  ^  RYA Diesel Engine HandbookAndrew Simpson B
16.02 –  ^  Sailboat Electrics SimplifiedDon Casey B
16.02 –  ^  Seaworthy: Essential Lessons from BoatUS — Robert A. Adriance – BoatU.S. B
16.02 –  ^  Seloc Bombardier Sea-doo Personal Watercraft … ManualClarence W. Coles. (T) B
16.02 –  ^  Seloc Kawasaki Personal Watercraft‚ 1992-97 Repair ManualJoan Coles B
16.02 –  ^  Seloc Yamaha Personal Watercraft … ManualClarence W. Coles B
16.02 –  ^  ShipsRichard Humble B
16.02 –  ^  Ships & Boats : Sail‚ Navigation‚ Radar‚ Anchor‚ Keel …Chris Oxlade B
16.02 –  ^  Shipshape - The Art of Sailboat MaintenanceFerenc Mat B
16.02 –  ^  Simple Boat MaintenancePat Manley B
16.02 –  ^  Small Boat Engines - Inboard & OutboardConrad Miller B
16.02 –  ^  Small Engines and Outdoor Power Equipment — Peter Hunn B
16.02 –  ^  Sorensen's Guide to Powerboats — Eric W. Sorensen B
16.02 –  ^  Stability and Trim for the Ship's OfficerWilliam E. George (Ed) B
16.02 –  ^  Stapleton's Powerboat Bible : How to Buy‚ Equip‚ and Organize …Sid Stapleton B
16.02 –  ^  Strength of Aluminum vs Strength of SteelKasten B
16.02 –  ^  Surveying and Restoring Classic BoatsJ C Winters B
16.02 –  ^  Surveying Fiberglass Power BoatsDavid Pascoe B
16.02 –  ^  Surveying Small CraftIan Nicolson B
16.02 –  ^  Take the Mystery Out of Boat MaintenanceLawrence A. Diamond B
16.02 –  ^  The Adlard Coles Book of Diesel EnginesTim Bartlett B
16.02 –  ^  The Adlard Coles Book of Outboard MotorsTim Bartlett B
16.02 –  ^  The American Rowboat Motor: An Illustrated HistoryArlan Carter B
16.02 –  ^  The Boat Repair ManualGeorge Buchanan B
16.02 –  ^  The Boatman's Guide to Modern Marine MaterialsErnest A. Zadig B
16.02 –  ^  The Boatowner's Guide to Corrosion — Everett Collier B
16.02 –  ^  The Care and Repair of Small Marine DieselsChris Thompson B
16.02 –  ^  The Classic Outboard Motor HandbookPeter Hunn B
16.02 –  ^  The Complete Book of Pleasure Boat EnginesErnest A. Zadig B
16.02 –  ^  The Diesel CompanionPat Manley B
16.02 –  ^  The Essential Boat Maintenance ManualJeff E. Toghill B
16.02 –  ^  The Golden Age of the Racing Outboard — Peter Hunn B
16.02 –  ^  The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ships‚ Boats‚ …Graham Blackburn B
16.02 –  ^  The Motorboat Electrical and Electronics ManualJohn C. Payne B
16.02 –  ^  The Napier WayBryan Boyle BB
16.02 –  ^  The Old Outboard BookPeter Hunn B
16.02 –  ^  The Small-Engine HandbookPeter Hunn B
16.02 –  ^  The Vintage Culture of Outboard Racing — Peter Hunn B
16.02 –  ^  The Young Sea Officer's Sheet AnchorDarcy Lever B
16.02 –  ^  Theory and Practice of Propellers For Auxiliary SailboatsJohn R. Stanton B
16.02 –  ^  This Old BoatDon Casey B
16.02 –  ^  Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel EnginesPaul Dempsey B
16.02 –  ^  Troubleshooting Marine DieselsPeter Compton B
16.02 –  ^  Understanding Boat Corrosion‚ Lightning Protection…John C. Payne B
16.02 –  ^  Understanding Boat DesignEdward S. Brewer B
16.02 –  ^  Understanding Boat Diesel EnginesJohn C. Payne B
16.02 –  ^  Watch It Made in the USA : Visitor's Guide to the Best Factory Tours — Karen Axelrod B
16.02 –  ^  What Shape Is She In?. A Guide to the Surveying of BoatsAllan H. Vaitses B
16.02 –  ^  Your Boat's Electrical SystemConrad Miller & E. S. Maloney B
16.03 – Magazines: (Incl. Articles‚ Back Issues‚+). T
16.03 –  ^  The ANCHOR — Anchors Aweigh Academy M
16.03 –  ^  DIY Boat Owner - The Marine Maintenance MagazineBoatUS Mad Mariner (OoB) M
16.03 –  ^  Gas Engine Magazine M
16.03 –  ^  ^  The Kittyhawk: The Little-Known History of Orville Wright's Canadian Getaway and His Beautiful Boat MA
16.03 –  ^  Rudder (The Antique & Classic Boat Society) Article Archive M
16.03 –  ^  ^  Major New Marine Engine History Book: Review of Engines Afloat MA
16.03 –  ^  ^  The Engine Company Remembered For Its Boats: Fay & Bowen Engine Co. MA
16.04 – Videos: (How-to-Tutorials‚ Documentaries‚ Travelogues‚+). T
16.05 – Websites: (Incl. Articles‚ Forum Posts‚ Tech Tips‚ Tech Notes‚ Social Media‚+). T
16.05 –  ^  Anchors Aweigh Academy V
16.05 –  ^  Antique & Classic Boat Society W
16.05 –  ^  BoatDiesel.comPeter Compton W
16.05 –  ^  BoatUS V
16.05 –  ^  ^  Aluminum CareDon Casey WA
16.05 –  ^  ^  Carbon Monoxide = Silent KillerDon Casey WA
16.05 –  ^  ^  Winterizing Your EngineDon Casey WA
16.05 –  ^ W
16.05 –  ^  ^  Leader Tractors: No Longer a Leader WA
16.05 –  ^  ^  Major New Marine Engine History Book: Review of Engines Afloat WA
16.05 –  ^  International Institute of Marine Surveying (IIMS) V
16.05 –  ^  ^  Ship and Boat Building TermsIIMS WA
16.05 –  ^  Martin's Marine Engineering PageMartin Leduc W
16.05 –  ^  ^  The Diesel engine and its development: A historical timeline — Martin Leduc WA
16.05 –  ^ W<
16.05 –  ^  Rudder (The Antique & Classic Boat Society) Article Archive W
16.05 –  ^  ^  Major New Marine Engine History Book: Review of Engines Afloat MA
16.05 –  ^  ^  The Engine Company Remembered For Its Boats: Fay & Bowen Engine Co. MA
16.05 –  ^ W<
16.05 –  ^  Wikipedia W
16.05 –  ^  ^  Marine propulsion WA
00.00 –  ^  ΞTitleΞ – + (ΞNotesΞ) — ΞCreatorΞ – ΞSourceΞ ?

If any Related Resources should be added to this list, please submit info/links via email To:
Editor♣ (Replace "♣" with "@")

CLICK HERE to discover how you can become a Member and gain FULL access to
thousands of expanded pages and dozens of excellent programs including our eLibrary!

CLICK HERE to view ALL the books, magazines, videos, etc. in our Academy eLibrary.
Media are also listed by category on the Topic Pages found on the Right Sidebar
CLICK HERE to donate any books, magazines, manuals, or videos, etc. to our Library.

If there is anything on this webpage that needs fixing, please let us know via email To:

Editor♣ (Replace "♣" with "@")

to see examples of our website's comprehensive contents!

Thanks to our amazing contributors for the steady flow of articles, and to our dedicated all-volunteer staff who sort, polish and format them, everyday we get a little bit closer to our goal of
Everything About Boats. If you would like to submit an article,
See Submitting Articles.


Detroit Diesel 8.2 Liter “Fuel Pincher” V8 Engine
Cummins V-555 & VT-555 “Triple-Nickel” V8 Diesel Engine
Lehman 120 (6D380) Diesel Engine (Ford 2704C & 2715E)
Ford Industrial Power Products Diesel Engines
How to Identify Ford Diesel Engines
Ford 2715E Diesel Engine
Lehman Mfg. Co.
Perkins Engines
Universal Atomic 4
Sears Boat Motors: Motorgo, Waterwitch, Elgin, etc.
Chrysler & Force Outboards
Eska Outboard Motors
Allison Transmission
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Marine Surveyors by Country
American Marine Ltd (Grand Banks)
Boat Inspection (Types of Marine Surveys)
Boat Builders: (A∼Z) (w/Vessel Types, Locale & Years Active)
USCG NVIC 07-95 Guidance on Inspection, Repair and Maintenance of Wooden Hulls
American Boat and Yacht Counsel (ABYC)

Layout of the Website's Pages

— Types of Webpages —
This website consists almost entirely of 3 types of webpages as follows:

  1. TOPIC PAGES (See Main Topic Pages listed on Website Contents or the Right Sidebar)
  2. VENDOR PAGES (Vendors of Products, Services, Events,+, DestinationsMedia Creators)
  3. PRODUCT PAGES (Equipment, Events, Media: pDoc, Books, Magazines, Videos, Websites,+)

Clickable Links that lead to other webpages appear in Blue Text and usually open in a new window.
Links in the Right Sidebar and most directories open in the current window, not a new window.

Note in the examples above that these pages form a natural hierarchy.
The unnumbered "^" pages are listed alphabetically in most tables.

Media Titles in tables are distinguished by their smaller font size.
Media (Books, Magazines, Videos, Articles,+) are treated as Products.
Vendors' Product Documentation (pDoc) are considered Media.
Destinations & Media Creators are treated as Vendors.
All Website Pages are optimized for viewing on
full-width disktop computer monitors,
but can be viewed on phones.

— Contents of Webpages —
Website Pages typically contain the following Sections:

  1. PATH (Shows the chain of EAB pages w/links that lead to the page being viewed).
    1. EXAMPLE:
      BOAT BUILDING & REPAIR » Boat Equipment » Propulsion » Engines » ∨∨
      ∧∧ Ford, Ebro, American Diesel, AmMarine, Barr, Beta, Bomac, Bowman, Couach,
      Lees, Lehman, Mermaid, Parsons, RenaultSabre, Thornycroft, Wortham Blake »
      DO-IT-YOURSELF » DIY Boat Building & Repair » DIY Schools & Classes »
      MEDIA w/Creator Directory » Documentation, BooksMagazinesVideosWebsites »
    2. (The "»" right pointing Guillemet symbol shows the chain through the page links.)
    3. (The "," comma between page links in the chain indicates pages are not subordinate, but are instead at the same level. See engine brands in the example above.)
    4. (The "∨", "∨∨", "∨∨∨",+ symbols indicate that the path line continues with whatever follows the "∧", "∧∧", "∧∧∧",+ symbols respectively. "∧" Precedes each MAIN TOPIC Page.)
  2. PAGE CONTENTS (Table of Contents with links to each main section on the page).
  3. PAGE BODY (The type of page determines the contents of its body as follows:).
    1. TOPIC PAGES (Topic Treatment: Introduction, Overview, Background, Details,+).
      • (Many Topic Pages contain Directories of Vendors with Links).
      • (Most Directory Listings are Alphabetical and/or by Locale).
    2. VENDOR PAGES (Vendor's Profile, Contact Information, Products, Services,+).
      • (Manufacturers, Resellers, Refitters, Yards, Surveyors, Clubs, Schools, Authors,+).
      • (Boating & Travel Destinations are treated as Vendors on their own Vendor Pages).
    3. PRODUCT PAGES (Product Features, Vendor Links, Specifications, Documentation,+).
      • (Media created by a vendor is often treated as a Product on its own Product Page).
      • (Boating & Travel Events are often treated as Products on their own Product Pages).
  4. RELATED RESOURCES (Topics, Vendors, Products, Media: Books, Websites,+ with Links).
  5. PAGE TAIL Contains the following Anchors Aweigh Academy & EAB Website Features:
    1. The Anchors Aweigh Academy's Header.
    2. A link to our Featured Articles EAB Home Page.
    3. Top 20 Most Popular Articles. (The section that appears right above this section).
    4. Layout of the Website's Pages. (This very section).
    5. Topics of Webpages. (The very next section below).
    6. What we have accomplished so far.
    7. Members must Sign-In to gain full access to Expanded Pages & Programs.
    8. Sign-Up (if not already a member).
    9. Public Comments (about the website & about this page).
  6. RIGHT SIDEBAR (Website Contents menu with links to Main Topic & Subtopic pages).
    (On some smart phones, the Right Sidebar may appear at the bottom of the webpage)

— Topics of Webpages —
Website Pages are categorized under the following 16 MAIN TOPICS:

The MAIN TOPICS follow a natural progression from conception of the vessel thru its
building, marketing, survey, financing, insuring, transport, moorage, use and upkeep.
The MAIN TOPICS (all Caps) below are followed by their Main Subtopics with Links.

00 – HOME: CONTENTSABOUT EAB: Contact EAB, Abbreviations & Symbols, FAQ, GLOSSARY, ADs,+.
01 – ABOUT BOATS w/Museum Directory: Early History, Recent History, Modern Vessel Types,+.
02 – BOAT BUILDING, OUTFITTING, REFITTING & REPAIR: Materials, Equipment, Builders,+.
03 – BOAT MARKETING: Boat Shows, Dealers & Brokers, Importing & Exporting, Auctions & Sales,+.
04 – BOAT INSPECTION: Types of Marine Surveys, Marine Surveyors, Schools, DIY Inspections,+.
05 – BOAT TITLES & VESSEL REGISTRY: Boat Title & Registration, Vessel Registry, Title Co's,+.
06 – BOAT FINANCING: Conventional (Banks, Credit Unions,+), Unconventional (Creative),+.
07 – BOAT INSURANCE: Maritime & Recreational: Coverage, Carriers, Agents,+., Claim Processing,+.
08 – BOAT TRANSPORT: By Sea (Piggyback, Delivery Skippers & Crews, & Towing), Over-Land,+.
09 – BOAT HAULING & LAUNCHING: Drydocks, Ways, Lifts, Cranes & Hoists, Launch Ramps,+.
10 – BOAT MOORAGE & STORAGE: Builders, Anchorages, Marinas, Yards, Racks & Stacks,+.
11 – BOATING ORGANIZATIONS: Yacht Clubs & Sailing Clubs, Paddling Clubs, Boat Owners,+.
12 – BOATING & TRAVEL: Events, Destinations, Boat Rentals & Charters, Cruises, Voyages,+.
13 – BOATING & MARITIME EDUCATION: Recreational Seamanship, Ship's Master & Crew,+.
14 – MARINE LAWS & REGULATIONS: International & National LawsLawyers‚ Investigators‚+.
15 – DO-IT-YOURSELF: DIY Boat Building & Repair, DIY Boat Sales, DIY Boat Surveys, DIY Classes,+.
16 – MEDIA w/Creator Directory + Academy eLibrary: pDocs, Books, Magazines, Videos, Websites,+.

The above MAIN TOPICS and a more detailed listing of Subtopics can
be found on the Website Contents page and on the Right Sidebar.

What we have accomplished so far.
Anchors Aweigh Academy and its website.

  • Published over 50,000 website pages about boats and boating, bringing us closer to reaching our goal of becoming "The ultimate reference resource about boats and ships for everyone from the beginning recreational boater to the seasoned professional mariner!"
  • Published over 300 website main topic webpages, many with full articles on the topic. See our Website Contents or the Right Sidebar for the listing of the main topic pages.
  • Published over 9,000 marine vendor webpages, all with their contact information, most with a description of their products and services, many with product documentation, specifications and independent reviews. (incl.: Boat designers, boat building tools, material and equipment manufacturers and suppliers, boat builders and dealers, yacht brokers, marine surveyors, boat insurers, boat transporters, skippers and crews, boatyards and marinas, yacht clubs, boat rentals and yacht charters, boating, seamanship and maritime schools, marine law attorneys and expert witnesses, boat refitters and repairers, book authors, magazine publishers, video producers, and website creators)
  • Acquired over 120,000 pages of product documentation including Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Pictures, Serial Number Guides, Installation Manuals, OpManuals, Parts Catalogs, Parts Bulletins, Shop Manuals, Wiring Diagrams, Service Bulletins, and Recalls. And have made all viewable to Academy Members through our EAB website eLibrary.
  • Acquired over 1,200 books and magazine back issues in our academy library and so far have made over 700 viewable to Academy Members through our EAB website eLibrary.
  • Published over 500 DIY How-To articles about boat design, construction, inspection, operation, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair. We are working hard to do more.

We are currently formatting and polishing the Anchors Aweigh Academy online and hands-on courses. Our Marine Surveying course has proven to be excellent for both the beginner and the seasoned surveyor, and especially helpful to the Do-It-Yourselfer.

Current Academy Members must SIGN IN to gain FULL access to this
website including expanded pages and valuable Academy programs
like our Academy eLibrary and our Ask-An-Expert Program!

If your membership has expired, CLICK HERE to Renew.

CLICK HERE to discover how you can become a Member and gain FULL access to
thousands of expanded pages and articles, and dozens of excellent programs

Comments for Public Viewing

Submit any comments for public viewing via email To: Comments♣ (Replace "♣" with "@")
Please remember to put this webpage's title in the subject line of your email.
All comments are moderated before they appear on this page. See Comment Rules.

General Comments About the Website

FROM Donald: "This is an awesome website. I found the information that I needed right away from one of the over 20,000 free articles that you provide as a public service. I'm surprised that so much if this site is free. But I still signed up so I could access the thousands of expanded pages, interesting articles, and dozens of valuable programs! The member's library of books, magazines and videos that I can view online is really terrific! I understand that you and your staff are all unpaid volunteers. Please keep up the good work. And I commend you for your plans to add another 10,000 free informative articles over the next year. I'm thrilled to support you in this endeavor with my small membership donation. Thanks again for all your hard work."

FROM Huey: "I agree with my Uncle, I too have found the articles to be very enlightening. They say that it will take about 100,000 articles to cover the full scope that they have envisioned for the website. They have over 20,000 articles so far and that's doing pretty well, but it could take several years to get the rest. I also noticed that many of the Main Topic Pages and some of the article pages are still in the rough draft stage. I guess that they will fill in as they can get volunteers to work on them. But what I can't figure out is why anyone would spend the time writing informative in depth articles just to give away free to this website for publication? What's in it for them?"

FROM Dewey: "Well Huey, to me It looks like most of the articles on this website are written by very informed people, like boating instructors, boat designers, boat builders, riggers, electricians, fitters, marine repair technicians and marine surveyors. Writing such articles helps establish them as knowledgeable professionals. After all, this website was originally created by a school for marine technicians and marine surveyors. The website is growing in content every day. They even had to move to a bigger, more powerful server because the website's traffic has been growing exponentially."

FROM Louie: "I agree with everyone above. This site is quickly becoming the ultimate reference resource about every aspect of boats and ships for everyone from the beginning recreational boater to the seasoned professional mariner. I use the topic pages on the right sidebar to browse around the website. It's like a Junior Woodchucks' Guidebook for Boaters. Their Members' Library of over 300 popular and obscure books and over 200 magazine back issues that can be viewed online is fabulous. The Academy's magazine is especially informative. On top of that, there is the "Ask-An-Expert program for members where you can get an expert's answer to any of your boat questions. And a whole years membership is only $25. What a deal! I really love being part of this "Everything About Boats" community and help provide thousands of helpful articles free to the public. I think that I'll sit down right now and write an article about my experiences boating with my uncle."

FROM Scrooge: "You rave about this website like it was the best thing since sliced bread. Well, I think it stinks. Sure, it has a lot of good information for boaters, and they're adding more every day, but it will probably never be finished. Furthermore, I don't even own a boat. And I wouldn't have a boat even if someone gave me one. Boats are a waste of money and time and energy and money! They're just a hole in the water you pour money into. If you gave me a boat, I'd sell it quicker then you could say Baggywrinkle. Then I'd lock up the cash with all my other money so I could keep my eye on it and count it every day. Bah humbug."

FROM Daisy: "I'm just so glad that Donald got the boat so we and the boys could enjoy boating — together. And of course all of the girls, April, May, and June, love to be on the water too, especially when that is where the boys are. Oh poor Scrooge, boating is more fun then you could possibly imagine."

FROM Scrooge: "After seeing how much fun you all have on the water together, I regret that I didn't have that much fun when I was young. I've had a change of heart, and I'm giving each of you a Lifetime Academy Membership."

FROM Editor: "For those of you that have stayed with us this far, many thanks, and we hope that you found this little narrative informative. Your faithful support inspires us to keep working on this phenomenal website. We know that we have a lot more to do. Ultimately, we hope that we can help you enjoy the wonder filled world of boating as much as we do. We are all waiting to see what you have to say about this webpage article. Submit any comments via email To: Comments♣ (Replace "♣" with "@"). Be sure to include this page's title in the subject line. Also, your corrections, updates, additions and suggestions are welcomed. Please submit them via email To: Editor♣ (Replace "♣" with "@"). It has been truly amazing to see what we have been able to accomplished when we've worked together. Thanks to all those that have donated their valuable time and energy, and a special THANK YOU to all that have supported this cause with their membership donations."

Comments About This Particular Page

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