Abbreviations, Acronyms & Symbols


^ Special Abbreviations, Acronyms & Symbols Used On This Website
^ Country 2 & 3 Letter Abbreviations, and Dialing Codes
^ Canada 2 Letter Abbreviations
^ United States 2 Letter Abbreviations
^ Dates & Times Abbreviations
^ Forum Posts, Tech Tips & Tech Notes.
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Special Abbreviations, Acronyms & Symbols
Used On This Website

- Dash between "YEARS MFR’d" = "Beginning"-"Ending" (example: 1976-1987).
- See above. Trailing (Dash) without an Ending Date = Still in Production.
~ A "~" (Tilde) at the beginning of a webpage title indicates that the page has two versions: One for signed in Academy Members and another for non-members. If there is a space between the "~" and the title‚ this indicates that the page/article is not finished yet (still "under development")‚ but may contain some resource materials and possibly a rough draft.
~ Thru (as in 1965~1980‚ A~Z‚ etc).
^ Referring to‚ part of and/or subordinate to a/the line item above.
‚+ ‚etc. Additional Items.
' 1900's (such as OoB'94 Means OUT of BUSINESS in 1994) Except Retired'15 means 2015.
2000's  (such as OoP"12 Means OUT of PRODUCTION in 2012).
¿xxx? Unconfirmed "xxx" (information).
[xxx] Brackets containing additional "xxx" information added by Editor to clarify or expand content of the article.
2sc Two Stroke Cycle.
4sc Four Stroke Cycle.
A~Z Alphabetical Listing.
BLUE Words with blue colored letters that turn maroon and underlined when hovered over represent a "clickable link". If the blue word is underlined‚ then the link is not yet active.
BHP Brake Horsepower.
cc Cubic Centimeter(s) (cm³) (such as in engine displacement).
ci Cubic Inches (in³) (such as in engine displacement).
cm Centimeter(s).
cyc Cycle‚ Cycles (60cyc = 60 Cycle AC).
DE German.
ed Education.
eg Latin "exempli gratia" means "for example" or "for the sake of an example"‚ e.g.  ("." (periods) are often left off on this website).
EN English.
ES Spanish.
etc Latin "et cetera" means "and so forth"‚ etc. (ending "." (period) is often left off on this website).
Eq Equipment.
FR French.
HP or hp Horsepower.
I.D. Inside Diameter (Sometimes shown as ID).
ID Inside Diameter (Sometimes shown as I.D.).
ie Latin "id est" takes the place of the English phrases "that is"‚ "in other words"‚ "namely"‚ i.e. ("." (periods) are often left off on this website).
in Inch‚ Inches.
INDIGO Words with Indigo colored letters represent email.
IT Italian.
kW Kilowatt(s).
L Liter(s) or Litre(s) (such as in "5.7L" engine displacement).
MAGENTA Words with magenta colored letters in the middle represent boilerplate placeholders that will eventually be replaced by the actual name‚ brand‚ manufacturer‚ link‚ etc.
MHP Metric Horsepower.
mm Millimeter(s).
N/G No Good (Such as in "LINK N/G" = Bad Link).
NLA No Longer Available (Such as in "Article NLA").
O.D. Outside Diameter (Sometimes shown as OD).
OD Outside Diameter (Sometimes shown as O.D.).
OoB OUT of BUSINESS (such as "OoB'94" Means OUT of BUSINESS in 1994).
OoP OUT of PRODUCTION (such as "OoP"12" Means OUT of PRODUCTION in 2012).
pg Page (as in "pg1" means page #1‚ then 2‚ 3‚ etc) or pages (as in "9pg" means 9 pages long).
PIX Picture (as in "PIX1" means Picture #1‚ then 2‚ 3‚ etc).
PIXs Pictures (plural).
PT Portuguese. "s"
RPM or rpm Revolutions per minute.
…s A lower case "s" at the end of an abbreviation (eg "PIXs") indicates that it is plural.
sc Stroke Cycle (as in 2sc = Two Stroke Cycle and 4sc = Four Stroke Cycle).
us$ United States Dollars (USD).

Country 2 & 3 Letter Abbreviations, and Dialing Codes

Afghanistan AF AFG 4 93
Albania AL ALB 8 355
Algeria DZ DZA 12 213
American Samoa AS ASM 16 1-684
Andorra AD AND 20 376
Angola AO AGO 24 244
Anguilla AI AIA 660 1-264
Antarctica AQ ATA 10 672
Antigua and Barbuda AG ATG 28 1-268
Argentina AR ARG 32 54
Armenia AM ARM 51 374
Aruba AW ABW 533 297
Australia AU AUS 36 61
Austria AT AUT 40 43
Azerbaijan AZ AZE 31 994
Bahamas BS BHS 44 1-242
Bahrain BH BHR 48 973
Bangladesh BD BGD 50 880
Barbados BB BRB 52 1-246
Belarus BY BLR 112 375
Belgium BE BEL 56 32
Belize BZ BLZ 84 501
Benin BJ BEN 204 229
Bermuda BM BMU 60 1-441
Bhutan BT BTN 64 975
Bolivia BO BOL 68 591
Bonaire BQ BES 535 599
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA BIH 70 387
Botswana BW BWA 72 267
Bouvet Island BV BVT 74 47
Brazil BR BRA 76 55
British Indian Ocean Territory IO IOT 86 246
Brunei Darussalam BN BRN 96 673
Bulgaria BG BGR 100 359
Burkina Faso BF BFA 854 226
Burundi BI BDI 108 257
Cambodia KH KHM 116 855
Cameroon CM CMR 120 237
Canada CA CAN 124 1
Cape Verde CV CPV 132 238
Cayman Islands KY CYM 136 1-345
Central African Republic CF CAF 140 236
Chad TD TCD 148 235
Chile CL CHL 152 56
China CN CHN 156 86
Christmas Island CX CXR 162 61
Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC CCK 166 61
Colombia CO COL 170 57
Comoros KM COM 174 269
Congo CG COG 178 242
Democratic Republic of the Congo CD COD 180 243
Cook Islands CK COK 184 682
Costa Rica CR CRI 188 506
Croatia HR HRV 191 385
Cuba CU CUB 192 53
Curaçao CW CUW 531 599
Cyprus CY CYP 196 357
Czech Republic CZ CZE 203 420
Côte d'Ivoire CI CIV 384 225
Denmark DK DNK 208 45
Djibouti DJ DJI 262 253
Dominica DM DMA 212 1-767
Dominican Republic DO DOM 214 1-809‚1-829‚1-849
Ecuador EC ECU 218 593
Egypt EG EGY 818 20
El Salvador SV SLV 222 503
Equatorial Guinea GQ GNQ 226 240
Eritrea ER ERI 232 291
Estonia EE EST 233 372
Ethiopia ET ETH 231 251
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) FK FLK 238 500
Faroe Islands FO FRO 234 298
Fiji FJ FJI 242 679
Finland FI FIN 246 358
France FR FRA 250 33
French Guiana GF GUF 254 594
French Polynesia PF PYF 258 689
French Southern Territories TF ATF 260 262
Gabon GA GAB 266 241
Gambia GM GMB 270 220
Georgia GE GEO 268 995
Germany DE DEU 276 49
Ghana GH GHA 288 233
Gibraltar GI GIB 292 350
Greece GR GRC 300 30
Greenland GL GRL 304 299
Grenada GD GRD 308 1-473
Guadeloupe GP GLP 312 590
Guam GU GUM 316 1-671
Guatemala GT GTM 320 502
Guernsey GG GGY 831 44
Guinea GN GIN 324 224
Guinea-Bissau GW GNB 624 245
Guyana GY GUY 328 592
Haiti HT HTI 332 509
Heard Island and McDonald Islands HM HMD 334 672
Holy See (Vatican City State) VA VAT 336 379
Honduras HN HND 340 504
Hong Kong HK HKG 344 852
Hungary HU HUN 348 36
Iceland IS ISL 352 354
India IN IND 356 91
Indonesia ID IDN 360 62
Iran‚ Islamic Republic of IR IRN 364 98
Iraq IQ IRQ 368 964
Ireland IE IRL 372 353
Isle of Man IM IMN 833 44
Israel IL ISR 376 972
Italy IT ITA 380 39
Jamaica JM JAM 388 1-876
Japan JP JPN 392 81
Jersey JE JEY 832 44
Jordan JO JOR 400 962
Kazakhstan KZ KAZ 398 7
Kenya KE KEN 404 254
Kiribati KI KIR 296 686
Korea‚ Democratic People's Republic of KP PRK 408 850
Korea‚ Republic of KR KOR 410 82
Kuwait KW KWT 414 965
Kyrgyzstan KG KGZ 417 996
Lao People's Democratic Republic LA LAO 418 856
Latvia LV LVA 428 371
Lebanon LB LBN 422 961
Lesotho LS LSO 426 266
Liberia LR LBR 430 231
Libya LY LBY 434 218
Liechtenstein LI LIE 438 423
Lithuania LT LTU 440 370
Luxembourg LU LUX 442 352
Macao MO MAC 446 853
Macedonia‚ the Former Yugoslav Republic of MK MKD 807 389
Madagascar MG MDG 450 261
Malawi MW MWI 454 265
Malaysia MY MYS 458 60
Maldives MV MDV 462 960
Mali ML MLI 466 223
Malta MT MLT 470 356
Marshall Islands MH MHL 584 692
Martinique MQ MTQ 474 596
Mauritania MR MRT 478 222
Mauritius MU MUS 480 230
Mayotte YT MYT 175 262
Mexico MX MEX 484 52
Micronesia‚ Federated States of FM FSM 583 691
Moldova‚ Republic of MD MDA 498 373
Monaco MC MCO 492 377
Mongolia MN MNG 496 976
Montenegro ME MNE 499 382
Montserrat MS MSR 500 1-664
Morocco MA MAR 504 212
Mozambique MZ MOZ 508 258
Myanmar MM MMR 104 95
Namibia NA NAM 516 264
Nauru NR NRU 520 674
Nepal NP NPL 524 977
Netherlands NL NLD 528 31
New Caledonia NC NCL 540 687
New Zealand NZ NZL 554 64
Nicaragua NI NIC 558 505
Niger NE NER 562 227
Nigeria NG NGA 566 234
Niue NU NIU 570 683
Norfolk Island NF NFK 574 672
Northern Mariana Islands MP MNP 580 1-670
Norway NO NOR 578 47
Oman OM OMN 512 968
Pakistan PK PAK 586 92
Palau PW PLW 585 680
Palestine‚ State of PS PSE 275 970
Panama PA PAN 591 507
Papua New Guinea PG PNG 598 675
Paraguay PY PRY 600 595
Peru PE PER 604 51
Philippines PH PHL 608 63
Pitcairn PN PCN 612 870
Poland PL POL 616 48
Portugal PT PRT 620 351
Puerto Rico PR PRI 630 1
Qatar QA QAT 634 974
Romania RO ROU 642 40
Russian Federation RU RUS 643 7
Rwanda RW RWA 646 250
Reunion RE REU 638 262
Saint Barthalemy BL BLM 652 590
Saint Helena SH SHN 654 290 n
Saint Kitts and Nevis KN KNA 659 1-869
Saint Lucia LC LCA 662 1-758
Saint Martin (French part) MF MAF 663 590
Saint Pierre and Miquelon PM SPM 666 508
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VC VCT 670 1-784
Samoa WS WSM 882 685
San Marino SM SMR 674 378
Sao Tome and Principe ST STP 678 239
Saudi Arabia SA SAU 682 966
Senegal SN SEN 686 221
Serbia RS SRB 688 381 p
Seychelles SC SYC 690 248
Sierra Leone SL SLE 694 232
Singapore SG SGP 702 65
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) SX SXM 534 1-721
Slovakia SK SVK 703 421
Slovenia SI SVN 705 386
Solomon Islands SB SLB 90 677
Somalia SO SOM 706 252
South Africa ZA ZAF 710 27
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands GS SGS 239 500
South Sudan SS SSD 728 211
Spain ES ESP 724 34
Sri Lanka LK LKA 144 94
Sudan SD SDN 729 249
Suriname SR SUR 740 597
Svalbard and Jan Mayen SJ SJM 744 47
Swaziland SZ SWZ 748 268
Sweden SE SWE 752 46
Switzerland CH CHE 756 41
Syrian Arab Republic SY SYR 760 963
Taiwan‚ Province of China TW TWN 158 886
Tajikistan TJ TJK 762 992
United Republic of Tanzania TZ TZA 834 255
Thailand TH THA 764 66
Timor-Leste TL TLS 626 670
Togo TG TGO 768 228
Tokelau TK TKL 772 690
Tonga TO TON 776 676
Trinidad and Tobago TT TTO 780 1-868
Tunisia TN TUN 788 216
Turkey TR TUR 792 90
Turkmenistan TM TKM 795 993
Turks and Caicos Islands TC TCA 796 1-649
Tuvalu TV TUV 798 688
Uganda UG UGA 800 256
Ukraine UA UKR 804 380
United Arab Emirates AE ARE 784 971
United Kingdom (UK) GB GBR 826 44
United States US USA 840 1
United States Minor Outlying Islands UM UMI 581 Â
Uruguay UY URY 858 598
Uzbekistan UZ UZB 860 998
Vanuatu VU VUT 548 678
Venezuela VE VEN 862 58
Viet Nam VN VNM 704 84
British Virgin Islands VG VGB 92 1-284
US Virgin Islands VI VIR 850 1-340
Wallis and Futuna WF WLF 876 681
Western Sahara EH ESH 732 212
Yemen YE YEM 887 967
Zambia ZM ZMB 894 260
Zimbabwe ZW ZWE 716 263
Aland Islands AX ALA 248 358

Canada 2 Letter Abbreviations

Alberta AB
British Columbia BC
Manitoba MB
New Brunswick NB
Newfoundland and Labrador NL
Northwest Territories NT
Nova Scotia NS
Nunavut NU
Ontario ON
Prince Edward Island PE
Quebec QC
Saskatchewan SK
Yukon YT

United States 2 Letter Abbreviations

Alabama AL
Alaska AK
Arizona AZ
Arkansas AR
California CA
Colorado CO
Connecticut CT
Delaware DE
Florida FL
Georgia GA
Hawaii HI
Idaho ID
Illinois IL
Indiana IN
Iowa IA
Kansas KS
Kentucky KY
Louisiana LA
Maine ME
Maryland MD
Massachusetts MA
Michigan MI
Minnesota MN
Mississippi MS
Missouri MO
Montana MT
Nebraska NE
Nevada NV
New Hampshire NH
New Jersey NJ
New Mexico NM
New York NY
North Carolina NC
North Dakota ND
Ohio OH
Oklahoma OK
Oregon OR
Pennsylvania PA
Rhode Island RI
South Carolina SC
South Dakota SD
Tennessee TN
Texas TX
Utah UT
Vermont VT
Virginia VA
Washington WA
West Virginia WV
Wisconsin WI
Wyoming WY
Washington D.C. DC

Dates & Times Abbreviations

What do the “XXXXXX-XXXX”, “XXXXXX”, “XXXX” number groupings mean on this website?
They mean the Date and Time by “YYMMDD-HHmm”. “YY” = Year, “MM” = Month, “DD” = Day, “HH” = Hour, “mm” = Minute. So “150704-1837” would mean July 4, 2015 at 6:37 PM. The “1837” on a 24 hour clock is 6:37 PM on a 12 hour clock (1837 – 1200 = 6:37 PM). Here are examples of time number groupings: “0637” means 6:37 AM. “1146” means 11:46 AM. “0014” means 12:14 AM (as it is after midnight). “1258” means 12:58 PM (as it is after noon). Whenever the date number grouping “YYMMDD” or the time number grouping “HHmm” are used by themselves, they are identified unless they are obvious.

AM, A.M., am, a.m. stands for Ante Meridiem (Latin = “before midday”) means “before noon”.
PM, P.M., pm, p.m. stands for Post Meridiem (Latin = “after midday”) means “after noon”.
NOTE: The terms 12 a.m. and 12 p.m. cause confusion and should not be used as neither the “12 am” nor the “12 pm” designation is technically correct. It advisable to use 12 noon and 12 midnight where clarity is required. To avoid ambiguity, airlines, railroads, and insurance companies use 12:01am for an event beginning the day, 11:59pm for ending it.

Notation of Time

If the time is in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), add a “Z” directly after the time without a space. “Z” is the zone designator for the zero UTC offset. “09:30 UTC” is therefore represented as “09:30Z” or “0930Z”. “14:45:15 UTC” would be “14:45:15Z” or “144515Z”.

UTC time is also known as “Zulu” time, since “Zulu” is the ICAO spelling alphabet code word for “Z”.

UTC time is Also known as “Greenwich Mean Time” (GMT) as it passes through Greenwich, London, United Kingdom.

Time Zones and Time Offsets
A time zone is a geographical region where almost everyone observes the same standard time.

A time offset is an amount of time subtracted from or added to UTC to get the current civil time – whether it’s standard time or daylight saving time. In any particular time zone, residents either observe standard time all year round (as in Russia or South Africa), or observe standard time in winter and daylight time in summer.

Offsets from UTC are written in the format ±[hh]:[mm], ±[hh][mm], or ±[hh] (either hour(s) ahead or behind UTC). So if the time being described is one hour ahead of UTC (such as the time in Berlin during the winter), the zone designator would be “+01:00”, “+0100”, or simply “+01”. This is appended to the time in the same way that ‘Z’ was above. The offset from UTC changes with daylight saving time, e.g. a time offset in Chicago, which is in the North American Central Time Zone, would be “−06:00” for the winter (Central Standard Time) and “−05:00” for the summer.

More from Wikipedia

Time Zone Abbreviations
Time zones are often represented by abbreviations such as “EST, WST, CST” but these are not part of the international time and date standard ISO 8601 and their use as sole designator for a time zone is not recommended. Such designations can be ambiguous. For example, “ECT”, could be interpreted as “Eastern Caribbean Time” (UTC−4h), “Ecuador Time” (UTC−5h) or “European Central Time” (UTC+1h).

ACDT Australian Central Daylight Savings Time UTC+10:30
ACST Australian Central Standard Time UTC+09:30
ACT Acre Time UTC−05
ACT ASEAN Common Time UTC+08
ADT Atlantic Daylight Time UTC−03
AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Savings Time UTC+11
AEST Australian Eastern Standard Time UTC+10
AFT Afghanistan Time UTC+04:30
AKDT Alaska Daylight Time UTC−08
AKST Alaska Standard Time UTC−09
AMST Amazon Summer Time (Brazil) UTC−03
AMST Armenia Summer Time UTC+05
AMT Amazon Time (Brazil) UTC−04
AMT Armenia Time UTC+04
ART Argentina Time UTC−03
AST Arabia Standard Time UTC+03
AST Atlantic Standard Time UTC−04
AWDT Australian Western Daylight Time UTC+09
AWST Australian Western Standard Time UTC+08
AZOST Azores Standard Time UTC−01
AZT Azerbaijan Time UTC+04
BDT Brunei Time UTC+08
BDT Bangladesh Daylight Time (Bangladesh Daylight saving time keeps UTC+06 offset) UTC+06
BIOT British Indian Ocean Time UTC+06
BIT Baker Island Time UTC−12
BOT Bolivia Time UTC−04
BRST Brasilia Summer Time UTC−02
BRT Brasilia Time UTC−03
BST Bangladesh Standard Time UTC+06
BST Bougainville Standard Time UTC+11
BST British Summer Time (British Standard Time from Feb 1968 to Oct 1971) UTC+01
BTT Bhutan Time UTC+06
CAT Central Africa Time UTC+02
CCT Cocos Islands Time UTC+06:30
CDT Central Daylight Time (North America) UTC−05
CDT Cuba Daylight Time UTC−04
CEDT Central European Daylight Time UTC+02
CEST Central European Summer Time (Cf. HAEC) UTC+02
CET Central European Time UTC+01
CHADT Chatham Daylight Time UTC+13:45
CHAST Chatham Standard Time UTC+12:45
CHOT Choibalsan UTC+08
ChST Chamorro Standard Time UTC+10
CHUT Chuuk Time UTC+10
CIST Clipperton Island Standard Time UTC−08
CIT Central Indonesia Time UTC+08
CKT Cook Island Time UTC−10
CLST Chile Summer Time UTC−03
CLT Chile Standard Time UTC−04
COST Colombia Summer Time UTC−04
COT Colombia Time UTC−05
CST Central Standard Time (North America) UTC−06
CST China Standard Time UTC+08
CST Central Standard Time (Australia) UTC+09:30
CST Central Summer Time (Australia) UTC+10:30
CST Cuba Standard Time UTC−05
CT China time UTC+08
CVT Cape Verde Time UTC−01
CWST Central Western Standard Time (Australia) unofficial UTC+08:45
CXT Christmas Island Time UTC+07
DAVT Davis Time UTC+07
DDUT Dumont d'Urville Time UTC+10
DFT AIX specific equivalent of Central European Time UTC+01
EASST Easter Island Standard Summer Time UTC−05
EAST Easter Island Standard Time UTC−06
EAT East Africa Time UTC+03
ECT Eastern Caribbean Time (does not recognise DST) UTC−04
ECT Ecuador Time UTC−05
EDT Eastern Daylight Time (North America) UTC−04
EEDT Eastern European Daylight Time UTC+03
EEST Eastern European Summer Time UTC+03
EET Eastern European Time UTC+02
EGST Eastern Greenland Summer Time UTC+00
EGT Eastern Greenland Time UTC−01
EIT Eastern Indonesian Time UTC+09
EST Eastern Standard Time (North America) UTC−05
EST Eastern Standard Time (Australia) UTC+10
FET Further-eastern European Time UTC+03
FJT Fiji Time UTC+12
FKST Falkland Islands Standard Time UTC−03
FKST Falkland Islands Summer Time UTC−03
FKT Falkland Islands Time UTC−04
FNT Fernando de Noronha Time UTC−02
GALT Galapagos Time UTC−06
GAMT Gambier Islands UTC−09
GET Georgia Standard Time UTC+04
GFT French Guiana Time UTC−03
GILT Gilbert Island Time UTC+12
GIT Gambier Island Time UTC−09
GMT Greenwich Mean Time UTC
GST South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands UTC−02
GST Gulf Standard Time UTC+04
GYT Guyana Time UTC−04
HADT Hawaii-Aleutian Daylight Time UTC−09
HAEC Heure Avancée d'Europe Centrale francised name for CEST UTC+02
HAST Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time UTC−10
HKT Hong Kong Time UTC+08
HMT Heard and McDonald Islands Time UTC+05
HOVT Khovd Time UTC+07
HST Hawaii Standard Time UTC−10
IBST International Business Standard Time UTC
ICT Indochina Time UTC+07
IDT Israel Daylight Time UTC+03
IOT Indian Ocean Time UTC+03
IRDT Iran Daylight Time UTC+04:30
IRKT Irkutsk Time UTC+08
IRST Iran Standard Time UTC+03:30
IST Indian Standard Time UTC+05:30
IST Irish Standard Time UTC+01
IST Israel Standard Time UTC+02
JST Japan Standard Time UTC+09
KGT Kyrgyzstan time UTC+06
KOST Kosrae Time UTC+11
KRAT Krasnoyarsk Time UTC+07
KST Korea Standard Time UTC+09
LHST Lord Howe Standard Time UTC+10:30
LHST Lord Howe Summer Time UTC+11
LINT Line Islands Time UTC+14
MAGT Magadan Time UTC+12
MART Marquesas Islands Time UTC−09:30
MAWT Mawson Station Time UTC+05
MDT Mountain Daylight Time (North America) UTC−06
MET Middle European Time Same zone as CET UTC+01
MEST Middle European Summer Time Same zone as CEST UTC+02
MHT Marshall Islands UTC+12
MIST Macquarie Island Station Time UTC+11
MIT Marquesas Islands Time UTC−09:30
MMT Myanmar Time UTC+06:30
MSK Moscow Time UTC+03
MST Malaysia Standard Time UTC+08
MST Mountain Standard Time (North America) UTC−07
MST Myanmar Standard Time UTC+06:30
MUT Mauritius Time UTC+04
MVT Maldives Time UTC+05
MYT Malaysia Time UTC+08
NCT New Caledonia Time UTC+11
NDT Newfoundland Daylight Time UTC−02:30
NFT Norfolk Time UTC+11:00
NPT Nepal Time UTC+05:45
NST Newfoundland Standard Time UTC−03:30
NT Newfoundland Time UTC−03:30
NUT Niue Time UTC−11
NZDT New Zealand Daylight Time UTC+13
NZST New Zealand Standard Time UTC+12
OMST Omsk Time UTC+06
ORAT Oral Time UTC+05
PDT Pacific Daylight Time (North America) UTC−07
PET Peru Time UTC−05
PETT Kamchatka Time UTC+12
PGT Papua New Guinea Time UTC+10
PHOT Phoenix Island Time UTC+13
PKT Pakistan Standard Time UTC+05
PMDT Saint Pierre and Miquelon Daylight time UTC−02
PMST Saint Pierre and Miquelon Standard Time UTC−03
PONT Pohnpei Standard Time UTC+11
PST Pacific Standard Time (North America) UTC−08
PST Philippine Standard Time UTC+08
PYST Paraguay Summer Time (South America) UTC−03
PYT Paraguay Time (South America) UTC−04
RET Réunion Time UTC+04
ROTT Rothera Research Station Time UTC−03
SAKT Sakhalin Island time UTC+11
SAMT Samara Time UTC+04
SAST South African Standard Time UTC+02
SBT Solomon Islands Time UTC+11
SCT Seychelles Time UTC+04
SGT Singapore Time UTC+08
SLST Sri Lanka Standard Time UTC+05:30
SRET Srednekolymsk Time UTC+11
SRT Suriname Time UTC−03
SST Samoa Standard Time UTC−11
SST Singapore Standard Time UTC+08
SYOT Showa Station Time UTC+03
TAHT Tahiti Time UTC−10
THA Thailand Standard Time UTC+07
TFT Indian/Kerguelen UTC+05
TJT Tajikistan Time UTC+05
TKT Tokelau Time UTC+13
TLT Timor Leste Time UTC+09
TMT Turkmenistan Time UTC+05
TOT Tonga Time UTC+13
TVT Tuvalu Time UTC+12
UCT Coordinated Universal Time UTC
ULAT Ulaanbaatar Time UTC+08
USZ1 Kaliningrad Time UTC+02
UTC Coordinated Universal Time UTC
UYST Uruguay Summer Time UTC−02
UYT Uruguay Standard Time UTC−03
UZT Uzbekistan Time UTC+05
VET Venezuelan Standard Time UTC−04:30
VLAT Vladivostok Time UTC+10
VOLT Volgograd Time UTC+04
VOST Vostok Station Time UTC+06
VUT Vanuatu Time UTC+11
WAKT Wake Island Time UTC+12
WAST West Africa Summer Time UTC+02
WAT West Africa Time UTC+01
WEDT Western European Daylight Time UTC+01
WEST Western European Summer Time UTC+01
WET Western European Time UTC
WIT Western Indonesian Time UTC+07
WST Western Standard Time UTC+08
YAKT Yakutsk Time UTC+09
YEKT Yekaterinburg Time UTC+05
Z Zulu Time (Coordinated Universal Time) UTC

International Date Line (IDL)

The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of navigation on the surface of the Earth that runs from the north pole to the south pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups.


From Wikipedia.

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Thanks to our amazing contributors for the steady flow of articles, and to our dedicated all-volunteer staff who sort, polish and format them, everyday we get a little bit closer to our goal of
Everything About Boats. If you would like to submit an article,
see Submitting Articles.


Ford Industrial Power Products Diesel Engines
Ford 2715E
Lehman Mfg. Co.
Detroit Diesel 8.2
Universal Atomic 4
Chrysler & Force Outboards
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Allison Transmission
American Marine Ltd (Grand Banks)
Boat Inspection
Types of Marine Surveys
Marine Surveyors by Regions
Boat Builders By MIC
Beta Marine
DIY Boat Owner Magazine
USCG NVIC 07-95 Guidance on Inspection, Repair and Maintenance of Wooden Hulls

What our nonprofit Anchors Aweigh Academy and its website have accomplished so far.

  • Published over 300 website main topic webpages, many with full articles on the topic. See our Website Contents in the Right Sidebar for the listing of the main topic pages.
  • Published over 9,000 marine vendor webpages, all with their contact information, most with a description of their products and services, many with product documentation, specifications and independent reviews. (Includes: Boat designers, boat building tools, material and equipment manufacturers and suppliers, boat builders and dealers, yacht brokers, marine surveyors, boat insurers, boat transporters, skippers and crews, boatyards and marinas, yacht clubs, boat rentals and yacht charters, boating, seamanship and maritime schools, marine law attorneys and expert witnesses, boat refitters and repairers, book authors and publishers, and video producers)
  • Acquired over 120,000 pages of product documentation including Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Pictures, Serial Number Guides, Installation Manuals, OpManuals, Parts Schematics, Parts Bulletins, Shop Manuals, Wiring Diagrams, Service Bulletins, and Recalls. And have made all viewable to academy members through the EAB website.
  • Acquired over 1,200 books and magazine back issues in our academy library and so far have made over 700 viewable to academy members through the EAB website.
  • Published over 500 DIY How-To articles about boat design, construction, inspection, operation, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair. We are working hard to do more.

We are currently formatting and polishing the Anchors Aweigh Academy online and hands-on courses. The Marine Surveying course has proven to be excellent for both the beginner and the seasoned surveyor, and especially helpful to the Do-It-Yourselfer.

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Comments for Public Viewing

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All comments are moderated before they appear on this page. See Comment Rules.

FROM Donald: "This is an awesome website. I found the information that I needed right away from one of the over 10,000 free articles that you provide as a public service. I'm surprised that so much if this site is free. But I still signed up so I could access the thousands of expanded pages, interesting articles, and dozens of valuable programs! The member's library of books, magazines and videos that I can view online is really terrific! I understand that you and your staff are all unpaid volunteers. Please keep up the good work. And I commend you for your plans to add another 10,000 free informative articles over the next year. I'm thrilled to support you in this endeavor with my small membership donation. Thanks again for all your hard work."

FROM Huey: "I agree with my Uncle, I too have found the articles to be very enlightening. They say that it will take about 50,000 articles to cover the full scope that they have envisioned for the website. They have over 10,000 articles so far and that's doing pretty well, but it could take several years to get the rest. I also noticed that many of the Main Topic Pages and some of the article pages are still in the rough draft stage. I guess that they will fill in as they can get volunteers to work on them. But what I can't figure out is why anyone would spend the time writing informative in depth articles just to give away free to this website for publication? What's in it for them?"

FROM Dewey: "Well Huey, to me It looks like most of the articles on this website are written by very informed people, like boating instructors, boat designers, boat builders, riggers, electricians, fitters, marine repair technicians and marine surveyors. Writing such articles helps establish them as knowledgeable professionals. After all, this website was originally created by a school for marine technicians and marine surveyors. The website is growing in content every day. They even had to move to a bigger, more powerful server on October 15, 2018 because the website's traffic has been growing exponentially."

FROM Louie: "I agree with everyone above. This site is quickly becoming the ultimate reference resource about every aspect of boats and ships for everyone from the beginning recreational boater to the seasoned professional mariner. I use the topic pages on the right sidebar to browse around the website. It's like a Junior Woodchucks' Guidebook for Boaters. Their Members' Library of over 300 popular and obscure books and over 200 magazine back issues that can be viewed online is fabulous. The Academy's magazine is especially informative. On top of that, there is the "Ask-An-Expert program for members where you can get an expert's answer to any of your boat questions. And a whole years membership is only $25. What a deal! I really love being part of this "Everything About Boats" community and help provide thousands of helpful articles free to the public. I think that I'll sit down right now and write an article about my experiences boating with my uncle."

FROM Scrooge: "You rave about this website like it was the best thing since sliced bread. Well, I think it stinks. Sure, it has a lot of good information for boaters, and they're adding more every day, but it will probably never be finished. Furthermore, I don't even own a boat. And I wouldn't have a boat even if someone gave me one. Boats are a waste of money and time and energy and money! They're just a hole in the water you pour money into. If you gave me a boat, I'd sell it quicker then you could say Baggywrinkle. Then I'd lock up the cash with all my other money so I could keep my eye on it and count it every day. Bah humbug."

FROM Daisy: "I'm just so glad that Donald got the boat so we and the boys could enjoy boating — together. And of course all of the girls, April, May, and June, love to be on the water too, especially when that is where the boys are. Oh poor Scrooge, boating is more fun then you could possibly imagine."

FROM Scrooge: "After seeing how much fun you all have on the water together, I regret that I didn't have that much fun when I was young. I've had a change of heart, and I'm giving each of you a Lifetime Academy Membership."

FROM Editor: "For those of you that have stayed with us this far, Thanks. You inspire us to keep working on this labor of love. We know that we have a lot more to do. Ultimately, we hope that we can help you enjoy the wonder filled world of boating as much as we do. We are all waiting to see what you have to say about this webpage article. And we assure you, your corrections, updates, additions and suggestions are welcomed. Let's work together on this.

FROM Name: Text.

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This website welcomes our members Comments & Reviews, including any recommendations (favorable or not) based on their experience with the above marine vendor, boat equipment, article author, etc. Please see our COMMENT RULES as all Comments will be moderated before they appear on this page.