Detroit Diesel 8.2 Liter “Fuel Pincher” V8

PATH: BOAT PRODUCTION » Boat Equipment » Propulsion » Engines » Detroit Diesel »


PAGE CONTENTS:
Detroit Diesel Overview, History, Contact Information with Links, etc.
Detroit Diesel 8.2 Overview & History. Shortcomings: Heads, Pistons, Bottom End, etc.
How To Keep the 8.2 Alive.
What others have said about this engine.
Similar Engines from Major Competitors.
Identifying the 8.2 by Model Number on Options Label.
Detroit Diesel 8.2 Specifications, Years Manufactured, and Duty Ratings. Serial # Guide.
Documentation: Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Manuals, Parts Catalogs. Recalls, etc.
Forum Posts, Tech Notes & Tech Tips.
Publications & Media: Articles, Books, Magazines, Videos, Websites, Authors, etc.
Related EAB Webpages.
Visit our FEATURED ARTICLES Home Page! Thanks to our amazing contributors.
This Months Top 20 Most Popular Articles on our EAB Website.
Members must SIGN IN to gain access to Members Only areas of this website.
Become an Academy Member and gain access to additional pages and programs!
Comments for everyone to view: Submit to Comments@EverythingAboutBoats.org.
Academy Members’ Comments & Reviews that only current Academy Members can view.
Academy Members’ Exclusive Comment Submission Box.
NOTES: This page is pretty much finished. If anything needs fixing, please let us know via email to⇒Editor@EverythingAboutBoats.org


Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is an American diesel engine manufacturer headquartered in Detroit, Michigan. It is currently a subsidiary of Daimler Trucks North America, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of the German Daimler AG. The company manufactures heavy-duty engines and chassis components for the on-highway and vocational commercial truck markets. Detroit Diesel has built more than 5 million engines since 1938, more than 1 million of which are still in operation worldwide. Detroit Diesel’s product line includes engines, axles, transmissions, and the Virtual Technician. Detroit engines, transmissions, and axles can be found in several trucks manufactured by Daimler Trucks North America including Freightliner, Western Star, SelecTrucks, Freightliner Custom Chassis and Thomas Built Buses.

See our Detroit Diesel webpage for company Overview, History and Contact Information,
PLUS information about their other products.


Detroit Diesel 8.2

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Liter “Fuel Pincher” marine engine with turbocharger but no charged air cooling.

Detroit Diesel had been building only 2-stroke-cycle engines like the venerable 6-71 since General Motors created the division in 1938, However, by the late 1970’s with the raising cost of diesel fuel and the inefficiencies inherent in their 2-stroke-cycle engines which caused them to consume more diesel fuel than their competitors’ modern 4-stroke-cycle engines, DDC realized that for them to compete in the growing medium duty truck market, they needed a cheap, fuel efficient engine to power medium duty trucks and school buses. They developed a lightweight, slightly under-square (108mm bore x 112mm stroke) 500 cubic inch displacement, 4-stroke-cycle V8 diesel engine called the 8.2 Liter “Fuel Pincher” which was introduced in trucks and buses for the 1980 model year. Shortly thereafter, the 8.2 became available with turbochargers. Turbocharged models with the highest horsepower ratings were usually charged-air cooled with an intercooler/aftercooler. Eventually, the 8.2 was marinized by Detroit Diesel and a few third-party companies including Covington Diesel, Johnson & Towers. and Stewart & Stevenson. Stewart & Stevenson marinized a version with Twin Turbos, but without any charged-air cooling (see a picture below).

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Liter marinized by Stewart & Stevenson with twin turbos but no charged-air cooling.

The 8.2 engine utilized several design features found in some automotive gasoline engines such as parent bore cylinders and short piston skirts. This in part led to the popular mistaken belief that the 8.2 was an adaptation of an existing gasoline engine. While this is true of some other engines like the ill fated GMC 5.7L V8 diesel engine adapted from the Oldsmobile 350ci V8 gasoline engine and the GMC Toro-Flow Diesel engine adapted from the GMC V6-V8-V12 gasoline truck engine family, it is not actually true of the 8.2 which was a new design intended to be a diesel engine from its inception. Unfortunately, due to its misguided design and light build the 8.2 proved to be quite troublesome especially in marine service as it was prone to “blowing” head gaskets, breaking crankshafts, spinning bearing, etc. as was common with gasoline engines converted into diesel engines. These shortcomings are discussed in detail below. Be sure to read the comments at the end of this page about how GM moved production of the 8.2 from the Detroit Diesel-Allison Division to the Chevrolet-Pontiac-Canada Division when Roger Penske acquired Detroit Diesel from GM because, as it is rumored, “he did not want anything to do with the 8.2”. This production move to an automobile division may have contributed to the mistaken belief that the 8.2 was a dieselized gasoline engine. 1990 was the last model year that the 8.2 was offered in any GM products. After 1990, 8.2 engine production slowed to a trickle, ceasing completely by 1994.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Shortcomings

The 8.2 has several serious shortcomings that makes it a very poor candidate for marine service. They include a “throw-away” parent bore cylinder block, a tendency toward frequent head gasket failures, a weak “bottom end” and a universally recognized short service life. These are detailed below followed with suggestions on “how to keep the 8.2 alive”.

Parent Bore Cylinders

Most diesel engine blocks are cast and machined to receive replaceable dry cylinder liners or wet cylinder liners like the Cummins V-555 shown second picture below. The bore of these liners are machined to fit “standard” bore size pistons. If a “linered” engine suffers excessive liner wear, or damage such as from overheat scoring or rust pitting, the liner is simply replaced. The 8.2’s cylinders, on the other hand, are cast and machined (e.g. bored and honed) directly into the engine block casting to fit “standard” bore size pistons. This is called “parent bore” or “native bore”. Most gasoline automobile engines are “parent bore” engines as they are much cheaper to build. This is also the case in a few diesel engines such as the Cat 3208 and the Cummins 5.9. If a “parent bore” engine block has suffered excessive wear, or cylinder damage such as from overheat scoring or rust pitting, the cylinders are bored and honed to fit oversized pistons. If the cylinders are too damaged to be bored to receive the largest oversized piston, then the block is replaced or in the case of some engines with thick enough cylinder walls,, the blocks can be reused by being bored and sleeved back to standard bore size by pressing in a repair sleeve. The Detroit Diesel 8.2L Service Manual #6SE421 describes in the Shop Notes Section 1.0 (the 78th & 79th pages of the manual) the procure for installing a repair sleeve in an 8.2 block. Unfortunately, engine rebuilders that have attempted to use repair sleeves in the 8.2’s cylinder bores have found that when the inherently weak “free standing” cylinder walls are machined oversized for these repair sleeves, the cylinder walls in the block become thinner and weaker, especially at the base of the cylinder where it joins the block, making the 8.2 cylinders more prone to flexing and the 8.2 even more prone to head gasket failure (see next topic below) and in a few cases, cylinders cracking at their base. In the past, the best option was to simply replace the cylinder block. Unfortunately, new cylinder blocks are now nearly none existent as Detroit Diesel ceased production of the major castings long ago, and rebuildable used blocks are becoming very scarce. This shortage is compounded by many automotive and marine 8.2 “take-outs” simply being scrapped, often when the vehicle or vessel is repowered, many with Cat 3208s, as many consider the 8.2 not worth repairing. Occasionally, used 8.2s appear for sale, such as on the internet, but after close examination they are often found to be too worn or damaged to be used in a rebuild. This all adds to the 8.2’s reputation as a “throw-away” engine.

Sometimes, when twin engines are replaced in a vessel, we find that while one of the engines is in serious trouble, whence the reason for the repower, the other engine may be serviceable or at least salvageable. A proper engine survey and/or a reasonable price may reduce enough risk that acquiring such an engine may provide a viable solution.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Head Gasket Failures

The 8.2 head gaskets most often fail between one or more of the combustion chambers and the water jacket that surrounds the cylinders. This breach allows the engine coolant to enter the cylinder during the intake stroke, then the compressing fresh air to enter the cooling system during the compression stroke, and finally the combustion gases to enter the cooling system during the power stroke and exhaust stroke. Additional engine coolant may enter the cylinder near the end of the exhaust stroke, The catastrophic results of “Hydrolocking” which can occur when enough liquid has entered the cylinder to stop the piston are discussed later in this article.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Head Gasket.

When the Detroit Diesel 8.2 is compared with other diesel engines, the reasons for the 8.2 head gasket failures become obvious.

Cummins V-555 “Triple Nickel” Cylinder Block with replaceable “Wet” Cylinder Liners removed.

Typical diesel engine blocks have cast and machined “decks” that support the top of the cylinders and evenly squash the head gaskets against the heads. In addition, most small V8 diesel engines have at least 6 head bolts (some shared with neighboring cylinders) in a full circle pattern around the top of the cylinder to more evenly provide the necessary head tightness on the head gasket. Both of these features can be seen in the Cummins V-555 “Triple Nickel” block shown directly above. Unfortunately, the cheaper Detroit Diesel 8.2 engine block (as illustrated in their brochure directly below) has neither.

Detroit Diesel 8.2L Block with “Free Standing Cylinders” (Note the open space all around the joined (siamese) cylinders)

The Detroit Diesel 8.2 cylinder blocks were cast without the full head gasket mating surface (the “deck”) leaving the joined “siamese” cylinders “free standing” as clearly seen in their brochure above. The 8.2 head gasket mating surface consist of just the narrow top ends of the cylinders. There is no connection or deck between the tops of the cylinders and the engine block. Detroit Diesel advertised that the reason for this was for more even cooling, but while this is true, the real reason behind this design was to leave the top of the cylinder casting open and accessible to allow a more precise locating of the mold during the casting process which allowed the block to be cast thinner and consequently lighter as it did not require as much safety margin thickness for “mold slip”, This of course also made casting cheaper. This “Open Deck” free standing cylinder design is not new. Most die cast aluminum blocks are of this design including the ill-fated Chevrolet Vega engine block pictured directly below, which also suffered from head gasket problems. To be fair, some of the Vega’s head gasket problems stemmed from the block being cast from aluminum which quickly expands as it heats up. Since the cylinders ran hotter then the block, the cylinders would expand and crush the head gasket against the head. And when the cylinders cooled, they would contract and draw back away from the now crushed head gasket allowing it to leak and blow-out. The cast iron block of the 8.2 also expands and contracts when heated and cooled, and this occurs somewhat unevenly, but to a far lesser degree then aluminum.

Chevrolet Vega Engine Block with “Open Deck” design.

Unfortunately, the big problem with the 8.2’s free-standing cylinder design is two-fold in that it reduces the surface for the head gasket to mate to and it allows the top of the “free standing” cylinders to flex back and forth and work against the head gasket when the engine is running especially at higher power output. This process is illustrated in the 4-Stroke Cycle diagram below where the piston can be seen first pushing against the right side of the cylinder during the compression stroke (see first yellow arrow to the left) and then pushing even harder against the left side of the cylinder during the power stroke (see second yellow arrow to the right). This pushing force is of course due to the changing angle of the connecting rod to the crankshaft’s rod journal as the crankshaft turns. Without a full “deck” to support the tops of the cylinders, they are allowed to flex back-and-forth, destroying the head gasket, especially if the engine is lugged.

The Detroit Diesel 8.2L Service Manual #6SE421 describes in section 1.1 the procedure for checking the flatness of the top of the block after the head has been removed to determine if the head mating surface (the “deck”) is flat enough to hold a head gasket. If the top surface varies by more then .07mm (0.003″) transversely or more then .17mm (0.007″) longitudinally, the block must be “rejected”. When checked, blocks from engines that had blown head gaskets were frequently found to be beyond these limits and therefore could not be reused, relegating them to the scrap heap. Amazingly, the cylinders in these blocks were often found to be slightly bent to one side, undoubtedly by the force of the pistons during power strokes as illustrated by the yellow arrow above.

This “Open Deck” free standing design makes the 8.2 engine prone to head gasket failures and the resulting internal damage which tends to be catastrophic. Operation of the 8.2 at flank (full) speed in marine service is not wise unless the propeller is somewhat “under-pitched”, allowing the engine to run more easily. Compare the 8.2 cylinder blocks pictured third above and third below which lack the “full deck” with another popular V8 diesel engine, the Caterpillar 3208 whose cylinder block shown directly below was produced with a “full deck” that naturally supports the top of the cast-in-block “Parent Bore” cylinders.

Caterpillar 3208 “Parent Bore” Cylinder Block with Full “Deck” and 18 Head Bolts per Head.

While GM considered producing the 8.2 with a “Full Deck” to mate each head, this unfortunately never came to fruition.

Head Bolts

Also note that the Cummins V-555 and the Caterpillar 3208 each have 18 head bolts per head whereas the Detroit Diesel 8.2 has only 10 head bolts per head. Later model 8.2 head bolts were larger in diameter (15mm vs 14mm) which allowed higher head bolt torque and thus were supposed to help better hold the heads to the block. It is therefore recommended that all earlier 8.2 engines be retrofitted with the larger head bolts by re-drilling the heads and re-tapping the block. While this may have helped a little, unfortunately this so called “vast improvement” did not solve the inherent weakness of the 10 bolt “free standing” design. In fact, it proved to increase the distortion of the head and block where they mated to the head gasket resulting in more uneven compression of the gasket. The head gasket itself was redesigned and made stronger, and this also helped. But be careful, some after-market head gaskets are inferior and as a consequence more prone to failure. Fortunately, these weaker head gaskets can usually be identified by visual comparison to the later, stronger genuine Detroit Diesel gasket.

Hydrolocking

The 8.2’s design drastically limits the power that the engine can produce without the head gasket failing and leaking engine coolant into the cylinders, risking hydrolocking the pistons, bending the connecting rods, twisting the crankshaft, stretching the main bearing caps, etc.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Engine Block with Cylinder Head Removed and Showing Evidence of a “Blown” Head Gasket.

In the case of the particular 8.2 engine pictured directly above with the head removed, the head gasket mating surface flatness test was found to be far beyond the allowed amount because the “free-standing” cylinders had distorted and bent to one side inside the block. The engine shows evidence of engine coolant leaking past the head gasket and into the cylinders. “Water Washing” is the term coined by this author to describe the effect that water has on the surfaces of the combustion chamber (including the top of the pistons) when water (such as from leaking antifreeze) is introduced into the combustion chamber of an engine while it is running. Any carbon buildup on the metal surfaces is literally “steam-cleaned” off, even down to bare metal. The pattern typically originates at the water’s point of origin (such as a leaking head gasket) and spreads across the combustion chamber surface. This effect can be seen on the tops of the pistons (especially the far right piston) in the 8.2 pictured above. It is however, very unusual for an engine to ingest enough water into the cylinders through a blown head gasket while it is running to hydrolock the engine as most of the water will form steam and exit through the exhaust port during the exhaust stroke. However, if antifreeze continues to leak into the cylinder(s) after the engine is shut-down as in the case of the above engine, and then the engine is cranked by the starter motor with coolant in the cylinder(s), hydrolocking of the piston(s) and damage to the connecting rod(s) is likely to result. In addition, the crankshaft will likely suffer twisting damage and may break. And the main bearing caps and saddles may suffer stretching and cracking damage from the extremely high loads on the already weak “bottom end”. Like many other 8.2 engines, hydrolocking made this particular 8.2 engine shown above unrebuildable, but only very close examination revealed that it is too damaged to rebuild. Unfortunately, many unrebuildable engines have been rebuilt and have consequently suffered early failure.

How Piston Skirt Length Affects Engine Service Life

Some engines have much shorter expected service lives then other engines. There is a direct relationship between the length of the piston skirt and the length of the engine’s service life. The shorter the piston skirt, the greater the wear experienced by the pistons, the rings and the cylinder bores. As shown in the 4-stroke cycle diagram above, the piston is forced against the side of the cylinder (yellow arrows) by the angle of the connecting rod to the crankshaft rod journal. Generally, the less lubricated surface that the piston can provide against the cylinder, such as from a shorter piston skirt, the greater the wear will be on the components. Also, the shorter the piston skirt, the greater the tendency for the piston to cock in the cylinder bore resulting in additional wear. Longer life engines typically have piston skirts at least as long as the cylinder bore diameter. Compare the length of the short-lifed 8.2 piston skirt shown below left with the long-lifed Caterpillar 7N4515 piston skirt shown below center. The exception to this rule is the super-long-lifed Crosshead engine which needs little piston skirt as it has a separate piston rod and slide bearing above the connecting rod’s wrist pin to carry the side-loads (see Crosshead engine below right).

     
Short-Lifed 8.2                             Long-Lifed Cat                       Crosshead

Also compare the distance from the crown of the piston to the first compression ring on each piston. The distance is much less on the 8.2 piston which makes it more vulnerable to damage from engine overheating, thermal runaway (note scoring), and detonation then the Caterpillar piston.

Also note how the actual contact surface of the 8.2 piston skirt has been further reduced by being squared-off around the wrist pin boss to make the piston lighter. The skirt is also cut-away to provide clearance for the rotating crankshaft when the piston is at bottom-dead-center (BDC) which allows for a shorter connecting rod. The 8.2 was designed with shorter, cut-away piston skirts and shorter connecting rods so the cylinders could be shorter and thus the engine’s overall height could be less, allowing it to fit into more limited-height applications. This also made the engine lighter and cheaper to build. As a consequence the 8.2 has a much shorter expected service life then other engines with longer piston skirts. However, because of the 8.2’s other shortcomings, the 8.2 rarely survives long enough to actually “wear out”.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Crankshaft and Bearing Failures

The 8.2 engine below has “thrown” the #4 connecting rod through the cylinder block and oil pan near the surfaces where they join, punching holes in both. In this case, “Hydrolocking” as discussed earlier was the main reason for this failure.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 with #4 rod thrown thru the crankcase and the oil pan which has been removed.

Unfortunately, the 8.2 suffers from a “weak bottom end”. Reports of “broken cranks”, “spun bearings” and “thrown rods” NOT caused by “Hydrolocking” are far too frequent. This weakness, however is common of most smaller “V” cylinder configuration engines, especially those with cylinder bores less then 5 inches (127mm) and is due to the overall shortness of the crankshaft. With twice as many pistons connected to a V8 crankshaft which is typically only slightly longer then an inline 4-cylinder crankshaft, there just isn’t much room for the connecting rod bearings, the crankshaft main bearings, and the crank webs. Consequently these bearings and webs must be narrower as graphically shown in the picture directly below of the 8.2 crankshaft. Unfortunately, in the case of slipping type bearings such as the 8.2 crankshaft bearings, the narrower the bearings, the more difficult it is maintain an adequate lubricating oil film in the bearings to support the heavy loads of a high compression diesel engine especially under load at higher RPM’s.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Crankshaft

Even though the connecting rod pins on a V8 crank are the widest journals on the crank, when assembled the V8 crank will have two connecting rods crowded onto each rod journal leaving little room for each rod bearing.

V8 Crankshaft with Two Rods assembled to each rod Journal.

In the picture second above and the illustration below, it is easy to see how narrow the rod bearings of an 8.2 have to be. Note the two oil feed holes per rod journal (one for each connecting rod. In a fully pressurized lubrication system like the 8.2 has, the oil is fed to the center of each bearing so that it can form an oil film between the crankshaft journal and the bearing surfaces, as it works its way to the outer edges of the bearing where it squirts out and splatters around the crankcase as the crankshaft turns. Oil tends to exit narrow bearings much more quickly. The wider the bearings, the more oil they can hold longer between the metal surfaces of the crankshaft and bearings, hence wide bearings can carry higher loads. The larger the cylinder bores, the longer the crankshaft and therefore the more room available for wider bearings.

Detroit Diesel 8.2 Crankshaft – Illustration.

The typical wear for the 8.2 crankshaft is far greater then the typical wear found on better engines. The Detroit Diesel 8.2 Service Manual 1985 contains the procedure (see Section 1.3 Crankshaft) for resurfacing “typical Ridging of Crankshaft” as much as .025mm (0.001″) using emery cloth and then crocus cloth. This Do-it-yourself procedure can easily result in very poor bearing journal surfaces that can cause early bearing failure. A qualified crankshaft machinist with the proper equipment able to perform quality resurfacing has the best chance of providing a satisfactory outcome.

On the crankshaft pictured two above and then illustration directly above, note how narrow the five main bearing journals are especially when compared with the 4-cylinder crankshaft below. They will be discussed in more detail a little later.

Another issue with any small V8 crankshaft is the narrow crank webs which are much weaker and consequently much more prone to breakage as shown below.

V8 Crankshaft with broken web near front end of crankshaft (left).

By comparison, the inline 4-cylinder crankshaft below which will have only one rod fitted per journal when assembled will have much wider rod bearings. Note the much wider main bearing journals which will accommodate much wider main bearings. Also note the wider and much stronger crank webs between the bearing journals.

Detroit Diesel 4-53 4-cylinder 2-stroke cycle crankshaft.

The inline 4-cylinder crankshaft shown above has 5 main bearings. The crank webs, and the width and diameter of the main and rod bearings have been optimized to carry the stress and load of a high compression, high output engine. By comparison, the V8 crankshaft has the same number of main bearings for twice as many cylinders, and the V8 main bearing journals are much narrower. Notice that the main bearing journals of the V8 crankshafts shown in the illustration and pictures above have been increased in diameter to increase the bearing surface in an effort to compensate for their narrowness, but at some point this becomes counter-productive because the increased diameter increases the bearing surface speed which makes it more difficult for the oil to maintain adequate oil film thickness at higher RPM’s. By comparison, a 4-cylinder crank’s main bearings can be wider so they can more easily maintain oil film thickness and carry the loads, hence the journals can be smaller in diameter to reduce bearing surface speed. This is why inline engines with the wider bearings and stronger crank webs, and main bearings between each cylinder can be air charged (e.g. with a turbocharger) to reliably produce more than twice the horsepower per unit of displacement then a small V8 like the 8.2. Air-charging these stronger inline diesel engines can also enable them to run cleaner with fewer emissions.

Engines with longer piston strokes have the advantage of typically producing much higher torque at slower crankshaft speeds (RPMs). The 8.2 was designed with a stroke much shorter then most other diesel engines of this displacement. It is just slightly “under-square” with a 108mm bore x 112mm stroke. Besides allowing the engine height to be lower, the shorter stroke also has the advantage of reducing the load on the “bottom end”. Unfortunately, any of these short stroke, nearly-square and over-square engines produce less torque and have to be set-up to run at higher RPM’s to produce their maximum power, which is limited by their increased crankshaft bearing surface speeds. As bearing surface speeds increase, bearing wear increases and so does the risk of bearing failure.

The above comparisons show why smaller V8 engines that lack the space for the wider crankshaft bearings and crank webs are not capable of the higher power outputs of comparable displacement inline engines. These are some of the main reasons why most diesel engine manufacturers have abandoned building small V8 engines and have embraced inline configurations especially the turbocharged 6 cylinder inline with 7 main bearings such as the Cummins B and C series engines. In the case of V8 engines with bores larger than 5 inches (127mm), they are longer and therefore have more room for wider crankshaft bearings and stronger crank webs which means that they can have much stronger “bottom ends” and therefore higher power outputs  per displacement unit then their smaller, shorter, and weaker little brothers.

Other 8.2 issues

Tuning-up the engine, especially adjusting the injectors, is complex, time consuming, and requires special tools which are becoming more and more difficult to obtain. One such tool is the Timing Pin and Guide Tool # J 29139 illustrated on SEC 14.2.1 page 1 of the Detroit Diesel 8.2L Service Manual #6SE421. This manual is available to current academy members for viewing from our Academy Library. The complete procedure is described in that section (14) of the manual including the special tools required. Several of these tools are no longer available from Detroit Diesel and must be fabricated. It would be more convenient to find someone knowledgeable and experienced in the procedure who already has the proper tools, but this is proving more difficult with each passing day. The above service manual also contains sections on Preventive Maintenance and Trouble Shooting that can be very helpful.

Quality replacement parts, other then soft parts (gaskets, seals, overhaul kits, etc.) are typically very expensive and are becoming more scarce. New major parts (ie blocks, heads, crankshafts, etc.) are practically non-existent and usable used parts are becoming very scarce.

How to keep the 8.2 alive

Because of these recognized inherent weaknesses, Detroit Diesel never did set up the 8.2 engines to produce very high power outputs (see Engine Specifications Table later in this article). Fortunately, in a vehicular application, the engine is rarely operated at higher speed and power output for very long, usually just during acceleration and when climbing hills. If the 8.2 engine is intentionally operated at reduced power (below 80%), by shifting down and easing up on the throttle, doing so has proven to help it survive. In a marine application this is accomplished by under-pitching the propeller, avoiding any rapid acceleration, and if necessary, reducing the vessel’s cruising speed. Unfortunately, this often encourages excessive carbon buildup and its ensuing problems, including “injector misfire” and detonation. Since the practice of routinely running at full throttle (flank speed) to blow out the carbon soot is NOT recommended with the 8.2, because doing so often results in head gasket failure or catastrophic bearing failure, other ways of reducing carbon buildup must be utilized. Unfortunately, the benefits of “water injection” are limited because the 8.2 should not be run at full throttle when most of the soot would be “steam-cleaned” and blown out. But adding certain carbon reducing and injector cleaning fuel additives can be quite helpful.

Like many 4-stroke cycle engines, the 8.2 will tend to detonate when started in colder weather. Detonation is the phenomenon when the heated gases from combustion expand in the combustion chamber faster then the speed of sound and generate a supersonic shockwave. Detonation in a cold engine is the result of the increased ignition lag-time that unfortunately, delays ignition until the combustion chamber has an overabundance of fuel. once ignited, the large quantity of fuel burns too fast, generating a shockwave. This shockwave or “sonic boom” if you like, can be heard by the naked ear as the characteristic “knock” or “ping” of detonation depending on the frequency of the sound, the “ping” being the higher frequency. Typically, the larger the cylinder, the lower the frequency. When detonation occurs in the 8.2, which mechanically injects the diesel fuel directly into the relatively fragile cylinder instead of into a heavily reinforced precombustion chamber, the shockwave too often causes damage to the already “weak” head gaskets because they are directly exposed to the shockwave. Starting any diesel engine, but especially an 8.2 in cold temperatures is greatly improved by fitting an engine warming device such as a block heater or an intake air heater. Heating the incoming air reduces the ignition lag-time, avoiding detonation.

It is never a good idea to use “Ether” to start an 8.2 as it will often detonate in the cylinders  causing head gasket damage or worse. Detroit Diesel made the mistake of providing a cold weather starting fluid injection canister as an option on the automotive and industrial versions of the 8.2, like they had offered on their 2-stroke cycle engines which were not prone to detonation, giving the impression that spraying starting fluid into the 8.2 was acceptable. Of course it proved to be detrimental and many 8.2 engines have been seriously damaged as a result. The starting fluid device was never offered for the marine version of the 8.2 because having such a volatile fuel as starting fluid in the engine space of a vessel, especially a diesel fueled one, is extremely dangerous. Remember that electrical devices such as relays, generators, alternators and starter motors on diesel engines in most vessels are not required to be ignition protected and therefore can provide an ignition source like as a spark for volatile fuels such as gasoline, ether, LPG, etc. Instead, it is better to fit an engine warming device such as a block heater (which is usually AC powered) or an intake air heater (which is usually DC and can be powered by the ship’s batteries) if the temperature is too cold for the engine to start easily.

Pay particular attention to the engine’s cooling system, especially the raw water pickup (keep it clear of obstructions), the raw water pump impeller, the heat exchanger, the engine coolant (antifreeze), the pressure cap, all hoses, and the engine belts. Due to the poor design detailed above regarding head gasket failures, even the slightest overheating can result in serious consequences. Consider retrofitting the engine with the larger head bolts and later, stronger head gaskets.

Fluid analysis of the engine coolant and engine oil can help detect a leaking head gasket and can also help determine the extent of other internal damage.

It may also prove helpful to pull the fuel injectors and inspect the cylinders with a borescope for internal engine damage, and “water washing”, which is evidence of a “blown” head gasket.

If you replace injectors BEWARE. The injector markings may NOT indicate that the injectors have been drilled larger for the greater fuel delivery required by the higher rated engines. This can result in some or all of the injectors delivering too little fuel for the higher rated engines or too much fuel for the lower rated engines. Ensure that the injectors’ fuel discharge holes, valves , etc. are the proper size for the rated horsepower of the engine. And yes, this injector mismatch may have already happened to your engine sometime in the past.

Ensure that the engine oil is properly maintained. Always use a quality Diesel Engine Lubricating Oil such as DELO 400. Always shake or stir the new oil container to mix the new oil before pouring the new oil into the engine as the oil and additives tend to separate over time. This is especially true of larger containers of oil such as drums which must be stirred routinely. Always maintain the proper oil level in the engine. Always replace the oil filter during every oil change. Always use a quality oil filter. Consider fitting the engine with a by-pass oil filter in addition to the original full-flow oil filter. The small micron by-pass filter’s element can remove much smaller contaminate particles from the oil then the larger micron full-flow filter’s element can, thus reducing wear from oil contaminates. Lastly, let’s consider one more source of wear and failure. If the engine sits dormant for long periods, consider fitting a pre-oiler to the engine to fill the oil galleys and bearings before starting the engine.

A number of vessels are fitted with 8.2s for propulsion. Many of these engines are already in trouble, and some of the owners don’t know it, but some do. There is no denying that the 8.2’s problems haven’t adversely effected the value of the vessels which are equipped with them. Whether you own such a vessel already or are considering buying one, a good place to start is with a fluid analysis of a properly drawn sample of the engine oil. Even when you don’t have any previous sampling results to trend from, a single current sampling can still reveal if any of the shortcomings inherent in the 8.2 have already resulted in damage to the engine and often to just what extent.

If the 8.2 is currently in good condition, and your plan is to keep the engine for awhile, the best advise is to make the above improvements, keep it maintained, and run it easy. If you intend on keeping the vessel for awhile, you should probably start budgeting for a repower. But remember that tight quarters may limit your choice of replacement engines.

What others have said about the 8.2

FROM Genesis: “The DD 8.2s are in fact diesels, and have the unit injector system that Detroits are known for, but they’re 4 strokes. They were also called “fuel pinchers”, although they were never really all that good at extracting the higher-BSFC numbers we now get from electronics. They’re parent-bore engines and have an “open deck” block design, which means that they’re prone to head gasket problems. Early year engines also had too small of head bolts for proper sealing pressures. I am generally a Detroit fan, but this is the one engine of theirs I would not own.”

FROM Scrod: “Detroit Diesel 8.2 Liter, head gasket failures (no block deck to support the liners, you’d think they would have learned from the Cadillac 4100) and bottom end problems. It doesn’t live up to the “Detroit Diesel” legend. I would avoid it.”

FROM Mobil_Bob: “8.2 Detroit…you couldn’t give me one even if you papered it with 20 dollar bills! Cam bushings were not presized. If you replace them the engine had to have the cam bores align bored. Oil pump gearrotor bushing. Replace it and you have to mount the engine block in a Bridgeport to resize the bushing so the outer gear will fit, 15mm head studs, that later had to be drilled out in situ?? tapped to 17mm, what a joke! Monobloc free standing cylinders much like that … of an engine that cadillac had hell with. Reset the overhead, injector and racks??? baseline method using dial indicators??? insane!!”

Johnson & Towers Marinized Detroit Diesel 8.2L Four-Stroke-Cycle V8 Diesel Engine with Turbo & Intercooler.

Similar Engines from Major Competitors

Detroit Diesel has never produced any other engine to fill this medium duty truck market. Similar engines were produced by other leading diesel engine manufacturers to compete in this growing market. Cummins developed the 555 cubic inch displacement V-555 “Triple Nickel” engine, but like the 8.2, it proved to have a weak “bottom end” as well as other fatal problems. Eventually, Cummins settled on the “B” and “C” series engines such as the inline six cylinder 5.9 Liter and 8.3 liter engines to fill this niche which they did quite successfully.

Caterpillar had come out with the 1100 medium truck engine in the 1960’s which became the 3160 marine engine. It was a larger bore V8 engine at 636 cubic inches of displacement, which made it a longer engine with a longer crankshaft and therefore more room for wider crankshaft bearings. It still suffered from a weak “bottom end” like it’s other V8 rivals. but not near as much. However, in marine use it also suffered from a design flaw of the interference fit camshaft driven gear that sometimes resulted in the gear spinning on the camshaft during a “prop-strike” or a “hard shift” which would in turn result in catastrophic internal damage to the engine. When Caterpillar came out with the 3160’s successor, the 3208, they strove to strengthen the “bottom end” which they succeeded in only slightly improving, but they did nothing to remedy the camshaft gear weakness. There is however a fix for this weakness. Eventually, Caterpillar turned to inline six cylinder engines such as the 3126.


Identifying the 8.2 by Model Number on Options Label

The options and equipment for the 8.2 engines can be identified by the Option Label that includes the engine serial number and model number. Engines prior to serial number 8G27987 were built with standard equipment only. No optional equipment was offered and no model label was provided. Engines after serial number 8G27987 will have the Option Label located behind the water pump.

A typical Model Number would be RC 4087-7300. This Model Number is broken down below to demonstrate the identification on the engine.


Specifications of Detroit Diesel 8.2L 4-Stroke Cycle
Automotive, Industrial and Marine Engines
Features: Horizontal Crankshaft & Parent Bore Cylinders

TABLE KEY:
BASE ENGINE: Manufacturer/Vendor & Model of Base Engine.
CYL: Cylinder Configuration – (Dash w/no spaces) Number of Cylinders: …V = V Pattern (eg V-8).
BORE & STROKE: …mm = Millimeters. …in = …” = Inches.
DISPLACEMENT = Swept Volume: …L = Liters. …ci = Cubic Inches (in³).
BRANDS / MODELS – R: Base Engine Brand / Model. Marinized Engine Brand / Model. R = Ratings.
^ R: Ratings: See the Engine Duty Ratings at the end of the Table. ⊕ = Multiple Ratings Available.
A-F: Aspiration-Fueling: N = Naturally Aspirated. T = Turbocharged. TT = TwinTurbo. …i = Intercooled.
^ Diesel: M = Mechanical Injection.
POWER: kW = Kilowatts. HP = Horsepower. BHP = Brake Horsepower. MHP = Metric Horsepower.
@RPM = Power Ratings @ Revolutions Per Minute.
YEARS Produced: Beginning-Ending. Trailing “–” (Dash) without an Ending Date = Still in Production.
DS = Data Source: Click DS Links to view DS. See Documentation Section for Data Source Descriptions.
^ ⊕ = Data Compiled from Multiple Sources. ⊗ = Data Not Found. …? = Data in Question/Unconfirmed.

Clicking a Model Link in the table will open a new window displaying our webpage containing details about that model. Clicking a Vendor Link will open a new window displaying our webpage containing details about that vendor and their products.

HOW TO READ THIS TABLE

Each line displays the data available from the identified Data Source (DS). The data is displayed according to the Table Key above. Clicking on the Data Source Link will open a new window that will display the actual Data Source used. Data Sources include Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, OpManuals, Parts Schematics, Shop Manuals, Articles, etc.

Keep in mind that Data can be inaccurate in the source material. We do not correct these errors in the table, however we do point them out in the “NOTES” when we find them. Also remember that in a few cases the source material may be partly illegible. We try to obtain the best source material available. If you wish to point out an error or you can help us obtain good source materials, please let us know via email to⇒Editor@EverythingAboutBoats.org

BASE ENGINE CYL BORE STROKE BORE STROKE DISPLACEMENT
DETROIT DIESEL 8.2 V-8 108mm 112mm 4.25in 4.41in 8.2L / 500ci
BRANDS / MODELS − R
DETROIT DIESEL A-F kW BHP MHP @RPM YEARS DS
8.2N (w/4A40 Inj) − CON N-M 97 130 2800 1979-1991 ?
8.2N (w/4A40 Inj) − CON N-M 97 130 2800 1979?-1991? CB
8.2N (w/4A40 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 130 2800 1982-1985 SM
8.2N (w/4A53 Inj) − CON N-M 97 130 2800 1979?-1991? CB
8.2N (w/4A53 Inj) − CON N-M 97 130 2800 1979-1991 ?
8.2N (4083-7100) − MIN N-M 97 130 2800 1988? SS2
8.2N N-M 108 145 2600 1979-1991 ?
8.2N (4083-7100) − CON N-M 108 145 2800 1988? SS2
8.2N (4087-7100) − ⊗ N-M 108 145 2600 1988? SS1
8.2N (w/4B45 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 145 2800 1984-1985 SM
8.2NC (w/4B45 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 145 2800 1984-1985 SM
8.2N N-M 112 150 2800 1979-1991 ?
8.2N (4087-7100) − ⊗ N-M 112 150 2800 1988? SS1
8.2N (w/4A53 Inj) − INT N-M 119 160 2800 1979?-1991? CB
8.2N (w/4A53 Inj) − INT N-M 119 160 2800 1979-1991 ?
8.2N (Marine) − CON N-M 119 160 2800? 1979-1991 ?
8.2N (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 160 2800 1982-1983 SM
8.2NC (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 160 2800 1982 SM
8.2N (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 165 2800 1984-1985 SM
8.2N (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 165 3000 1981-1983 SM
8.2NC (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 165 3000 1981-1983 SM
8.2NC (w/4B55 Inj) − ⊗ N-M 165 2800 1984-1985 SM
8.2N N-M 127 170 2600 1979-1991 ?
8.2N (4087-7100) − ⊗ N-M 127 170 2600 1988? SS1
8.2T (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 156 2600 1983 SM
8.2T (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 160 2600 1984 SM
8.2T (w/4A53 Inj) − CON T-M 119 160 2800 1979?-1991? CB
8.2T (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 160 2800 1982-1983 SM
8.2T (w/4A65 Inj) − CON T-M 119 160 2800 1979?-1991? CB
8.2T (w/4C65 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 160 2800 1983 SM
8.2T (w/4A53 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 165 2800 1984-1985 SM
8.2T (w/4J60 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 165 2600 1985 SM
8.2TC (w/4K60 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 165 2600 1985 SM
8.2T T-M 134 180 2800 1979?-1991 ?
8.2T (4087-7300) − ⊗ T-M 134 180 2800 1988? SS1
8.2T (w/4H60 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 190 2800 1985 SM
8.2T (w/4A65 Inj) − INT T-M 149 200 2800 1979?-1991? CB
8.2T (w/4A65 Inj) − INT T-M 149 200 2800 1979-1991 ?
8.2TC (w/4E67 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 200 2800 1984-1985 SM
8.2T (Marine) − CON T-M 149 200 2800 1979?-1991 ?
8.2T (w/4C65 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 205 3000 1981-1983 SM
8.2T (w/4C65 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 205 2800 1984-1985 SM
8.2T T-M 157 210 2800 1979?-1991 ?
8.2T (4087-7300) − ⊗ T-M 157 210 2800 1988? SS1
8.2T (4082-8300 4A70) − ⊗* T-M 160.4 215 3200 1983 SS3
8.2T (4082-8301 4A70) − ⊗* T-M 160.4 215 3200 1983 SS3
8.2T (Calif) T-M 168 225 2800 1979?-1991 ?
8.2T (4087-7300 Calif) T-M 168 225 2800 1983? SS1
8.2T T-M 172 230 2800 1979?-1991 ?
8.2T (4087-7300) − ⊗ T-M 172 230 2800 1988? SS1
8.2T (4083-7336) − MAX T-M 172 230 2800 1988? SS2
8.2T (w/4B75 Inj) − ⊗ T-M 230 2800 1985 SM
8.2T − ⊗ T-M 250 3000? ⊗-⊗ ?
8.2TI? − ⊗ Ti-M 300 3200? ⊗-⊗ ?
COVINGTON DIESEL A-F kW BHP MHP @RPM YEARS DS
8.2T − ⊗ T-M 250 3000? ⊗-⊗
8.2TI? − ⊗ Ti-M 300 3200? ⊗-⊗
8.2TT? − ⊗ TT-M 300? 3200? ⊗-⊗
JOHNSON & TOWERS A-F kW BHP MHP @RPM YEARS DS
8.2T − ⊗ T-M 250 3000? ⊗-⊗
8.2TI? − ⊗ Ti-M 300 3200? ⊗-⊗
STEWART & STEVENSON A-F kW BHP MHP @RPM YEARS DS
8.2T − ⊗ T-M 250 3000? ⊗-⊗
8.2TI? − ⊗ Ti-M 300 3200? ⊗-⊗
8.2TT? − ⊗ TT-M 300? 3200? ⊗-⊗
NOTES: All models have “Parent Bore” type cylinder blocks. Repair sleeves are NOT recommended for high load applications such as marine propulsion. Stewart & Stevenson marinized a Twin-Turbo version, with no cooler (see picture far above)
*Marine Rated Model.

Detroit Diesel
Automotive Duty Ratings

CON = Continuous
INT = Intermittent
MIN = Minimum
MAX = Maximum
Gross = Gross Power


Detroit Diesel
Industrial 
Duty Ratings

CON = Continuous
INT = Intermittent
MIN = Minimum
MAX = Maximum


Detroit Diesel
Marine
Duty Ratings

CON = Continuous
INT = Intermittent
PC = Pleasurecraft


Covington Diesel
Marine Duty Ratings

CON = Continuous
INT = Intermittent
PC = Pleasurecraft


Johnson & Towers
Marine Duty Ratings

CON = Continuous
INT = Intermittent
PC = Pleasurecraft


Stewart & Stevenson
Marine Duty Ratings

CON = Continuous
INT = Intermittent
PC = Pleasurecraft


Detroit Diesel 8.2L Engine Serial Number Guide
Serial Number Suffix = 8G
Total Engines Built = 300,000±

Year MFR'd Starting Serial # Approximate Number of 8.2L Engines Manufactured
1979 870 1‚510 (Production started near the end of 1979)
1980 2380 23‚934
1981 26314 23‚307
1982 49621 18‚105
1983 67726 22‚822
1984 90548 25‚097
1985 115645 30‚000 (including 5‚000 spares)
1986 145645 24‚274
1987 169919 24‚475
1988 194394 20‚163
1989 214557 16‚256
1990 230813 69‚197 (including 50‚000 spares)
1991 300010 124 (Spares?)
1992 300134 135 (Spares?)
1993 300269 ? (Spares?)
NOTES: Suffix = 8G From Detroit Diesel Engine Serial Number Guides Dy1‚ Dy2‚ Dy3.

Engine Documentation

Documentation with Bold Titles are part of our Academy Library!
To view the entire document, click on its Bold Title Link to go to our webpage for
that item and then scroll down to the "Academy Library" section on that page.
DS = Data Source for Engine Specifications.

DOCUMENTATION TYPE:
DOCUMENT TITLE – PRODUCTs (NOTES) DS
Catalogs & Brochures: CB
Detroit Diesel Brochure – 8.2L Advantages CB1
SpecSheets: (Specification Sheets‚ Data Sheets‚ FactSheets) SS
Detroit Diesel SpecSheet – 8.2L Automotive Engine SS1
Detroit Diesel SpecSheet – 8.2L Industrial Engine SS2
Detroit Diesel SpecSheet – 8.2L Marine Engine SS3
Charts and Graphs: CG
Detroit Diesel Chart/Graph – 8.2 (Notes) CG
Pictures: PX
Detroit Diesel Picture (View) – 8.2 (Notes) PX
Press Releases: (by Date: = YYMMDD) PR
Detroit Diesel Press Release (DATE) – 8.2 (Notes) PR
Model History: MH
Detroit Diesel Model History – 8.2 (Notes) MH
Serial Number Guide: (Manufacture Date Code Identification) SN
Detroit Diesel Engine Serial Number Guide #6SE266 SN1
Detroit Diesel Engine Serial # GuideDepco Power Systems. SN2
Detroit Diesel Engine Serial Number GuideSwift Equipment Solutions. SN3
Installation Instructions: II
Detroit Diesel Installation Instructions – 8.2 (Notes) II
Installation Drawings with Dimensions: ID
Detroit Diesel Drawings w/Dims – 8.2T (4082-8300) ID1
Detroit Diesel Drawings w/Dims – 8.2T (4082-8301) ID2
Detroit Diesel Drawings w/Dims – 8.2T (4083-7366) ID3
Detroit Diesel Drawings w/Dims – 8.2T (4087-7336) ID4
OpManuals: (Owner's/Operator's Handbooks/Guides/Manuals) OM
Detroit Diesel OpManual – 8.2 (Notes) OM
Parts Catalogs: (with Exploded Views & Parts Lists) PC
Detroit Diesel Parts Catalog – 8.2L #6SP152 PC1
Parts Bulletins: (by Date: YYMMDD) PB
Detroit Diesel Parts Bulletin – 8.2 (Notes) PB
Shop Manuals: (Repair/Service/Technical/Workshop Manuals) SM
Detroit Diesel Service Manual – 8.2L #6SE421 SM
Wiring Diagrams: WD
Detroit Diesel Wiring Diagram – 8.2 (Notes) WD
Service Bulletins: (by Date: YYMMDD) SB
Detroit Diesel Service Bulletin (DATE) – 8.2 (Notes) SB
Product Recalls: PR
Detroit Diesel Recall – 8.2 (Notes) PR
Related Documentation: RD
Detroit Diesel ? – 8.2 (Notes) RD

If you can help us add information, Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Pictures, OpManuals, Parts Lists, Shop Manuals, etc. that we lack, please submit the info or link (or attach the PDF) via an email to⇒Editor@EverythingAboutBoats.org


Forum Posts, Tech Notes & Tech Tips

TYPE:
TITLE (NOTES) — AUTHOR‚ SOURCE‚ etc.
Forum Posts:
Detroit 8.2L‚ Good and Bad — The Diesel Garage.
Would you buy a big truck with an 8.2L Detroit Diesel — The Diesel Stop.
Detroit Diesel 8.2 liter — Sam's Marine.
6.5 or 8.2 — The Truck Stop.
Detroit Diesel 8.2L Engines — UnifliteWorld.
1994 Detroit Diesel 8.2L – The Hull Truth.
Tech Notes:
+
Tech Tips:
+

If you think we should add a Forum Post, Tech Note or Tech Tip to this section, please submit the Link via email to the Editor@EverythingAboutBoats.org. Thanks!


Publications & Media

Publications and Media with Bold Titles are part of our Academy Library!
To view the entire publication, etc, click on its Bold Title Link to go to our webpage for
that item and then scroll down to the "Academy Library" section on that page.

To help us alphabetize the lists below, the beginning grammatical articles
"The" & "A/An" have been moved to the end of the title. Example with article in bold:
Title, The — Author

TYPE:
TITLE — AUTHORS‚ EDITORS‚ PUBLISHERS‚ PRODUCERS‚ DIRECTORS‚ SOURCE‚ etc.
Articles:
8.2 Detroit Diesel Engines — Steve Johnson at eHow.
Books:
+
Magazines:
+
Videos:
Detroit Diesel 8.2L NA Truck Engine Test Run — YouTube.
Detroit Diesel 8.2L Turbo Marine Engine Test Run — YouTube.
Detroit Diesel 8.2L NA (DT8 2LEC-7510460GN) Test Run — YouTube.
Websites:
Detroit Diesel — DDC.
Detroit Diesel — Wikipedia.
Barrington Diesel Club.

CLICK HERE to donate a publication or video to our Academy Library.
CLICK HERE to view the directories of all publications and videos in our Academy Library.
If you know of a Publication, etc. that should be added to this list, just mention it in an
email to⇒
Editor@EverythingAboutBoats.org


Related EAB Webpages


EverythingAboutBoats.org
Related Main Topic Pages with Links

2 – BOAT PRODUCTION.
2.6 – Boat Equipment (Vendors, Specs, Manuals, Reviews, Recalls,+).
2.6.8 – Propulsion Machinery (Types, Configurations, Features, Control Systems,+).
2.6.8.1 – Engine Brands & Manufacturers (Petrol/Gasoline, Diesel, CNG, A~Z,+).
2.6.8.2 – Engine-to-Marine Gear Interfaces (SAE Specs, Damper Plates, Jackshafts,+).
2.6.8.3 – Marine Gears (Inboards, V-Drives, IOs, OBs, Surface-Piercing,+).
2.6.8.4 – Shafting (Propshafts, Couplings, Seals, Bearings, Struts, Keys, Nuts,+).
2.6.8.5 – Propellers (Screws, Water Jets, Paddle wheels,+).
2.6.9 – Electrical Systems (Direct Current, Alternating Current,+).
2.6.9.1 – Auxiliary Generators.

15 – BOAT REFITTING & REPAIR.
15.1 – Refitters & Repairers by Regions (Shipyards, Boatyards, Riggers, Repair Shops,+).
15.1.1 – Refitters & Repairers – United States.
15.2 – Boat Repair Schools (Hull, Systems, On-Board Equipment, Propulsion Machinery,+).
15.3 – Do-It-Yourself Refitting & Repair (Installation, Maint, Troubleshooting, Repair,+).
15.3.1 – DIY: Fundamentals.
15.3.1.1 – DIY: Tools, Usage, Safety,+.
15.3.1.2 – DIY: Rot, Corrosion, Fatigue,+.
15.3.1.3 – DIY: Troubleshooting, Failure Analysis,+.
15.3.2 – DIY: Vessel Structure.
15.3.2.2 – DIY: Steering & Thrusters (Mechanical, Hydraulic,+).
15.3.2.5 – DIY: Galvanic Corrosion Protection.
15.3.2.6 – DIY: Hull Penetrations & Openings (Thru-Hulls, Scuttles, Skylights, Hatches,+).
15.3.3 – DIY: Propulsion Machinery (Control Systems,+).
15.3.3.1 – DIY: Engines (Fuels, Troubleshooting, Repair, Rebuilding vs Repowering,+).
15.3.3.1.1 – DIY: Engine Mechanical (Pistons, Rods, Crankshafts, Blocks, Heads, Valves,+).
15.3.3.1.2 – DIY: Engine Lubrication (Splash, Forced, Oil, Filtration, Additives, Oil Analysis,+).
15.3.3.1.3 – DIY: Engine Fuel (Petrol/Gasoline, Diesel, CNG,+).
15.3.3.1.4 – DIY: Engine Electrical (Starting, Charging, Instrumentation,+).
15.3.3.1.5 – DIY: Engine Cooling (Air, Raw Water, Fresh Water,+).
15.3.3.1.6 – DIY: Engine Exhaust (Dry, Wet,+).
15.3.3.1.7 – DIY: Engine Mounting (Hard, Soft,+).
15.3.3.2 – DIY: Engine-to-Marine Gear Interfaces (Adapters, Dampers, Jackshafts,+).
15.3.3.3 – DIY: Marine Gears (Inboards, Inboard-Outboards, Outboards, Sail Drives, Pods,+).
15.3.3.4 – DIY: Shafting (Shafts, Couplings, Joints, Thrust Bearings, Seals, Cutlass, Struts,+).
15.3.3.5 – DIY: Propellers (Screws, Water Jets, Paddle wheels,+).
15.3.4 – DIY: Electrical Systems.
15.3.4.1 – DIY: Direct Current.
15.3.4.2 – DIY: Alternating Current.
15.3.4.4 – DIY: Auxiliary Generators.
15.3.7 – DIY: Safety Equipment (PFDs, Firefighting, Alarms,+).
15.3.9 – DIY: Tenders.

16 – PUBLICATIONS & MEDIA + Lending Library (w/Reviews).
16.1 – Authors.
16.2 – Books.
16.3 – Magazines.
16.4 – Product Documentation (SpecSheets, Installation Drawings, Manuals, Parts Books,+).
16.5 – Videos (Movies).
16.6 – Websites (w/Links).



Visit our FEATURED ARTICLES Home Page
to see examples of our website's comprehensive contents!

Thanks to our amazing contributors for the steady flow of articles, and to our dedicated all-volunteer staff who sort, polish and format them, everyday we get a little bit closer to our goal of
Everything About Boats. If you would like to submit an article,
see Submitting Articles.

— TOP 20 MOST POPULAR ARTICLES —

Ford Industrial Power Products Diesel Engines
Ford 2715E
Lehman Mfg. Co.
Detroit Diesel 8.2
Universal Atomic 4
Chrysler & Force Outboards
Eska
Perkins
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Allison Transmission
American Marine Ltd (Grand Banks)
Boat Inspection
Types of Marine Surveys
Marine Surveyors by Regions
Boat Builders By MIC
Beta Marine
Waterwitch
DIY Boat Owner Magazine
ABYC
USCG NVIC 07-95 Guidance on Inspection, Repair and Maintenance of Wooden Hulls


What our nonprofit Anchors Aweigh Academy and its
EverythingAboutBoats.org website have accomplished so far.

  • Published over 300 website main topic webpages, many with full articles on the topic. See our Website Contents in the Right Sidebar for the listing of the main topic pages.
  • Published over 9,000 marine vendor webpages, all with their contact information, most with a description of their products and services, many with product documentation, specifications and independent reviews. (Includes: Boat designers, boat building tools, material and equipment manufacturers and suppliers, boat builders and dealers, yacht brokers, marine surveyors, boat insurers, boat transporters, skippers and crews, boatyards and marinas, yacht clubs, boat rentals and yacht charters, boating, seamanship and maritime schools, marine law attorneys and expert witnesses, boat refitters and repairers, book authors and publishers, and video producers)
  • Acquired over 120,000 pages of product documentation including Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Pictures, Serial Number Guides, Installation Manuals, OpManuals, Parts Schematics, Parts Bulletins, Shop Manuals, Wiring Diagrams, Service Bulletins, and Recalls. And have made all viewable to academy members through the EAB website.
  • Acquired over 1,200 books and magazine back issues in our academy library and so far have made over 700 viewable to academy members through the EAB website.
  • Published over 500 DIY How-To articles about boat design, construction, inspection, operation, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair. We are working hard to do more.

We are currently formatting and polishing the Anchors Aweigh Academy online and hands-on courses. The Marine Surveying course has proven to be excellent for both the beginner and the seasoned surveyor, and especially helpful to the Do-It-Yourselfer.


Current Academy Members must SIGN IN to gain FULL access
to this website including the Members' Comments & Reviews!

If your membership has expired, CLICK HERE to Renew.

IF YOU ARE NOT YET AN ACADEMY MEMBER,
CLICK HERE to discover how you can become a Member and gain FULL access to
thousands of expanded pages and articles, and dozens of excellent programs
WITH JUST A SMALL DONATION!

Thank you for your support. You make this website possible.


Comments for Public Viewing

Anyone may submit comments for public viewing via email to:
Comments@EverythingAboutBoats.org
(Put this webpage's title in the subject line)

FROM Donald: "This is an awesome website. I found the information that I needed right away from one of the over 10,000 free articles that you provide as a public service. I'm surprised that so much if this site is free. But I still signed up so I could access the thousands of expanded pages, interesting articles, and dozens of valuable programs! The member's library of books, magazines and videos that I can view online is really terrific! I understand that you and your staff are all unpaid volunteers. Please keep up the good work. And I commend you for your plans to add another 10,000 free informative articles over the next year. I'm thrilled to support you in this endeavor with my small membership donation. Thanks again for all your hard work."

FROM Huey: "I agree with my Uncle, I too have found the articles to be very enlightening. They say that it will take about 50,000 articles to cover the full scope that they have envisioned for the website. They have over 10,000 articles so far and that's doing pretty well, but it could take several years to get the rest. I also noticed that many of the Main Topic Pages and some of the article pages are still in the rough draft stage. I guess that they will fill in as they can get volunteers to work on them. But what I can't figure out is why anyone would spend the time writing informative in depth articles just to give away free to this website for publication? What's in it for them?"

FROM Dewey: "Well Huey, to me It looks like most of the articles on this website are written by very informed people, like boating instructors, boat designers, boat builders, riggers, electricians, fitters, marine repair technicians and marine surveyors. Writing such articles helps establish them as knowledgeable professionals. After all, this website was originally created by a school for marine technicians and marine surveyors. The website is growing in content every day. They even had to move to a bigger, more powerful server on October 15, 2018 because the website's traffic has been growing exponentially."

FROM Louie: "I agree with everyone above. This site is quickly becoming the ultimate reference resource about every aspect of boats and ships for everyone from the beginning recreational boater to the seasoned professional mariner. I use the topic pages on the right sidebar to browse around the website. It's like a Junior Woodchucks' Guidebook for Boaters. Their Members' Library of over 300 popular and obscure books and over 200 magazine back issues that can be viewed online is fabulous. The Academy's magazine is especially informative. On top of that, there is the "Ask-An-Expert program for members where you can get an expert's answer to any of your boat questions. And a whole years membership is only $25. What a deal! I really love being part of this "Everything About Boats" community and help provide thousands of helpful articles free to the public. I think that I'll sit down right now and write an article about my experiences boating with my uncle."

FROM Scrooge: "You rave about this website like it was the best thing since sliced bread. Well, I think it stinks. Sure, it has a lot of good information for boaters, and they're adding more every day, but it will probably never be finished. Furthermore, I don't even own a boat. And I wouldn't have a boat even if someone gave me one. Boats are a waste of money and time and energy and money! They're just a hole in the water you pour money into. If you gave me a boat, I'd sell it quicker then you could say Baggywrinkle. Then I'd lock up the cash with all my other money so I could keep my eye on it and count it every day. Bah humbug."

FROM Daisy: "I'm just so glad that Donald got the boat so we and the boys could enjoy boating — together. And of course all of the girls, April, May, and June, love to be on the water too, especially when that is where the boys are. Oh poor Scrooge, boating is more fun then you could possibly imagine."

FROM Editor: "For those of you that have stayed with us this far, Thanks. You inspire us to keep working on this labor of love. We know that we have a lot more to do. Ultimately, we hope that we can help you enjoy the wonder filled world of boating as much as we do. We are all waiting to see what you have to say about this webpage article. And we assure you, your corrections, updates, additions and suggestions are welcomed. Let's work together on this.

FROM Tom: “I have twin 8.2s in my boat. I’ve found this article to be very helpful in understanding my engines’ weaknesses. My engines seem to be in pretty good shape. If I’m careful and follow your suggestions, I hope to get several more years of service from them. Thank you for the information. Keep up the good work. I’ve attached a picture of a V8 crankshaft that shows how narrow the connecting rod bearings have to be when two rods are attached to each journal.”

V8 Crankshaft with Two Rods assembled to each rod Journal.

FROM Scrod: “Detroit Diesel 8.2 Liter, head gasket failures (no block deck to support the liners, you’d think they would have learned from the Cadillac 4100) and bottom end problems. It doesn’t live up to the “Detroit Diesel” legend. I would avoid it.”

FROM Genesis: “The DD 8.2s are in fact diesels, and have the unit injector system that Detroits are known for, but they’re 4 strokes. They were also called “fuel pinchers”, although they were never really all that good at extracting the higher-BSFC numbers we now get from electronics. They’re parent-bore engines and have an “open” block deck design, which means that they’re prone to head gasket problems. Early year engines also had too small of head bolts for proper sealing pressures. I am generally a Detroit fan, but this is the one engine of theirs I would not own.”

FROM Mobil_Bob: “8.2 Detroit…you couldn’t give me one even if you papered it with 20 dollar bills! Cam bushings were not presized. If you replace them the engine had to have the cam bores align bored. Oil pump gearrotor bushing. Replace it and you have to mount the engine block in a Bridgeport to resize the bushing so the outer gear will fit, 15mm head studs, that later had to be drilled out in situ?? tapped to 17mm, what a joke! Monobloc free standing cylinders much like that … of an engine that cadillac had hell with. Reset the overhead, injector and racks??? baseline method using dial indicators??? insane!!”

FROM Glenn: “We had a 8.2 come in with a head gasket problem and i got it torn down before i knew what we was getting into. One cylinder was what i called bent over to the side some. When you run a straight edge on top, one side was high and other side low, just like it was trying to lay over.”

FROM Snapon Man: “I have seen several people say that the Detroit Diesel 8.2 liter engine was designed and built by the Pontiac division. I would like to know if anyone has proof that this is true. Its not hard to believe as it was used in a lot of GMC trucks as well as others and GMC and Pontiac were usually grouped together as far as dealerships went and the 8.2 was painted Pontiac blue. I haven’t found anything anywhere that says beyond a doubt that it was actually a Pontiac product. If anyone has anything connecting the 8.2 with Pontiac I would like to see it. Thanks to everyone.”

FROM Bob: “Oh yeah, the Fuel Squeezer. Real popular in the 80’s in GM and Ford mediums. The engine was designed by Detroit Diesel but was manufactured in Romulus MI. The Romulus plant was eventually transferred from Detroit Diesel-Allison Division to Chevrolet-Pontiac-Canada Division during one of Roger Smith’s (GM CEO) frequent re-org’s in the 80’s, so I guess it isn’t a stretch to say Pontiac built these things for a spell. They were indeed painted a blue very close to Pontiac blue. Were they any good? Well… My experiences were that if the 8.2L was one of the low power (165 h.p.) naturally aspirated versions, they were pretty good. No power, but very good fuel economy. However, if the 8.2L was one of the higher horsepower turbo versions (I think 220 h.p. was max) they ate head gaskets. A lot. Not only were there too few head bolts. but the block was similar to a Chevy Vega in that it was an open-deck design. The water jackets were open to the deck surface. Not much area for the head gasket to seal. Someone told me that towards the end of production GM revised the block to a closed deck design but I never saw one like that. There was a rumor going around that when Roger Penske bought Detroit Diesel from GM he specifically didn’t want the 8.2L because it was ‘junk’. Not too sure how true that was, but when that took place (1988) it was pretty clear that GM and Ford were going to stop using the 8.2L soon (1990), and GM was not going to sell the Romulus plant (they still operate it to this day making V-6 gasoline engines). I think it’s easy to see why Penske wasn’t interested in it. When the 8.2L first came out (late 1979?), I though GM had lost their minds and were going to reintroduce the Toro-Flow!”

FROM Geoff: “Toro-flow was a diesel version of the GMC V-6, V-8, V12 family of gassers. An entirely different engine then the 8.2, but same problem, not enough head bolts, for the load. Low power, poor reliability. Never really caught on either, it was built back when gas medium trucks ruled the market. Heavy diesels were covered by GM’s 2 stroke diesels and the Toro-flow was a cheap diesel for the medium market.”

FROM M.S.D.: “The engine 8.2 block doesn’t have liners like other models but its no different than rebuilding a Cat 3208. Detroit Diesel did offer a complete marine engine in 300 HP. Exhaust manifolds are identical for the Detroit and J&T models. The only odd ball manifolds were made of aluminum and were designed for the twin turbo engines produced by Stewart and Stevenson, and maybe Covington Diesel. Today, only the right bank manifold is available and its limited to which distributor has them. I am told maybe 4 or 5 units. The left bank is on back order with no date in sight for delivery. The freshwater pumps are no longer available in new or reliabuilt. Rebuild kits are available and some good shops have them for exchange. The salt/raw water pump pulley is no longer available but Depco Pump has cast a new pulley to match and offers it with a new pump. Turbo charger is another one said to not be available but a good turbo shop can get the parts new. Injectors are tricky and I recommend having the ones that came out rebuilt rather than exchange. Most injector shops don’t rebuild these, but they do send them out to the few shops left who have the equipment to do these correctly. The only problems I have seen is on the 300HP versions where injectors were exchanged. All 300HP engines have special injectors, bigger tips, and flowed more fuel. The injector body retained the lower output markings so when the mechanics ordered exchange units they went by the markings, and the result was lower power and a confused mechanic and pissed off owner. 9 out of 10 detroit mechanics don’t have the tools to work on 8.2s and when they did try to work on them they got bit. So you’ve got Detroit mechanics saying these are crappy engines and owners who believe it. Any diesel engine that gets poor maintenance, worked on by ignorant mechanics, and abused, (over worked, overloaded) will get the same results. There is much to say about this little engine as it was used for many years in many applications and with many satisfied customers. What other engine was available in that configuration (size, HP, fuel consumption) during that era that could have fit in its place? As it is now, the easiest replacement for this engine is a mechanical B series Cummins. For More $$$ go with a Yanmar, But not much else pound for pound fits in its place.


Academy Members' Comments & Reviews
Academy Members must be signed in to post and view

This website welcomes our members Comments & Reviews, including any recommendations (favorable or not) based on their experience with the above marine vendor, boat equipment, article author, etc. Please see our COMMENT RULES as all Comments will be moderated before they appear on this page.