Chrysler & Force Outboards

PATH:  Contents » Boat Production » Boat Equip » Propulsion » Engines »

^ Chrysler/Force Overview, History, Contact Information with Links, etc.
^ Engine Specifications, Years Manufactured, and Duty Ratings.
^ Documentation: Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Manuals, Parts Lists. Recalls, etc.
^ Forum Posts, Tech Notes & Tech Tips.
^ Publications & Media: Articles, Books, Magazines, Videos, Websites, Authors, etc.
^ Related EAB Webpages.
^ Visit our FEATURED ARTICLES Home Page! Thanks to our amazing contributors.
^ This Months Top 20 Most Popular Articles on our EAB Website.
^ Members must SIGN IN to gain access to Members Only areas of this website.
^ Become an Academy Member and gain access to additional pages and programs!
^ Comments for everyone to view: Submit to
^ Academy Members’ Comments & Reviews that only current Academy Members can view.
^ Academy Members’ Exclusive Comment Submission Box.
NOTES: As this page gets ever closer to being finished, please enjoy what we have so far.

The Evolution & Demise of Chrysler/Force Outboards

Kissel ⇒ West Bend ⇒ Chrysler ⇒ Force (Bayliner ⇒ Brunswick / Mercury)


Two brothers, George and William Kissel founded the Kissel Motor Car company in 1908. The plant was located in Hartford, Wisconsin. Like so many other companies of the period, they fell on hard times in the late 20’s. In 1929 they filed for bankruptcy and lost the company in 1931. In 1934 the brothers regained control of the plant and founded Kissel Industries. They started manufacturing candy vending machines among other ventures.


Sears sold outboard motors manufactured by several different manufacturers under their brand name “Water Witch” (two words, then later, one word). Find more on the Waterwitch page. In late 1936, Kissel Industries won the exclusive contract with Sears and Roebucks Company to build outboard motors. George Kissel and Herman Palmer would design the new outboard. They had been the chief engine designers at the old motor car company. The new outboards would be called Waterwitch (one word). Kissel Industries never marketed outboards under Kissel or any other name. For more information about these engines, go to a really beautiful website dedicated to the Waterwitch Outboards built by the Kissel Motor Company in Hartford, Wisconsin from 1936~1944. The only outboard production during the War Years was for government agencies.

In 1944 Kissel Industries was purchased by West Bend Aluminum Company along with the Sears and Roebucks contract to make outboards. The relationship continued with Sears and Roebucks through this transition. This brought an end to the Waterwitch brand of outboard motors in 1945. In 1946 West Bend Outboard manufactured their first motor for Sears. It was in this year that Sears and Roebucks changed their outboard motor brand name to “Elgin”. West Bend had a non-compete clause with Sears for the USA that ran through 1955. Starting in 1956 some outboards appeared wearing the West Bend name.

More from &
1959 West Bend 16 hp Ad

1959 West Bend 16 hp Ad

West Bend continued to add to their product line. This caught the eye of the Chrysler Corporation. In 1965, the Chrysler Corporation purchased West Bend’s outboard motor business. Chrysler acquired the 413,000 sq. ft facility in Hartford, Wisconsin which employed 500 people. The business was added to Chrysler’s Marine and Industrial Engine division which already included a Marysville, Michigan plant for producing inboard marine engines

From Jan. 8, 1965, Wall Street Journal.

In 1965, the Chrysler Corporation also purchased Lone Star Boats of Plano, Texas. Chrysler pioneered the concept of marketing boats and outboard motors together as a package.

More at our Chrysler Marine webpage


The 1980’s government bailout forced Chrysler to sell off their non-core businesses, so in 1983, Chrysler sold the profitable outboard division to Bayliner’s US Marine and the brand was renamed Force Outboards. Bayliner sold many Force engines mated to their boats as package deals with matching trailers.

Baylinder with White Force_In 1986, Bayliner and its US Marine division, including Force, were acquired by the Brunswick Corporation, owners of Mercury Outboards who were then tasked with supporting the Force product line. Shortly thereafter, the engine color scheme was changed from white to ‘bowling ball’ charcoal black like Mercury Outboards’ white color scheme had changed to Phantom Black years earlier.

Force on Bayliner

In 1990, when a long running labor dispute at the Hartford, Wisconsin plant was decided in labor’s favor, as Brunswick had threatened, the plant was closed and Force production was relocated to the Mercury assembly line in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.

Chrysler/Force Outboard Plant in Hartford, WI. Now occupied by Steel Craft, Inc.

Chrysler/Force Outboard Plant in Hartford, WI. Now partly occupied by Steel Craft, Inc.

Force Outboard by Mercury Marine

Force Outboard by Mercury Marine

The Chrysler/Force engines were generally pretty dependable engines. If they did need work, the engines were quite simple and easy to fix. Parts were reasonably priced and widely available. Surprisingly, many parts are still available from Mercury Marine dealers and from aftermarket suppliers. The secret to keeping the engine healthy is to run it only on fresh fuel. After oil is mixed with the gasoline, the mixture is good for only a couple of weeks. After that, get rid of ALL of the old fuel and start fresh. The reason is this: From the time that Chrysler acquired West Bend until Mercury ceased Force production in 1999, the product line received few improvements beyond superficial cowling changes. While everyone else was developing flat topped pistons and loop scavenged combustion chambers which proved far less prone to detonation from stale fuel, Chrysler and then later, Force stayed with the cross-scavenged combustion chambers with ridged pistons which promoted detonation and the resulting detonation piston damage and thermal runaway cylinder damage that became common-place with the advent of low/no lead fuels (especially those containing alcohol) which – because of open vented fuel tanks in boats – quickly become unstable and suffered from evaporation and phase separation. View “The often overlooked cause of Engine Detonation – Phase-Separation“. In recent years, older Chrysler and Force engines have been de-tuned with less and less spark advance and richer and richer fuel jets, and consequently de-rated to lower and lower horsepower with lower pitch propellers in an effort to prevent the engines from producing detonation shock waves, going into “thermal runaway”, and disintegrating as shown below left. An undamaged piston is shown below right for comparison.

Always use fresh fuel!

The engine brand suffered from several other design flaws and deficiencies as well. The high energy ignition systems suffered frequent failures until they switched to Mercury components. The early two-piece lower unit housings were easily bent by impact. Later in the 1990’s A problem that plagued the newer one piece lower units developed when the propeller supplier began installing a shorter splined clutch hub in the propellers. This allowed the propeller’s thrust washers to tighten against the propeller hub until the rubber clutch was disabled. Since the rubber clutch provided protection against damage to the lower unit shafts, gears and clutch dog in the event of a prop-strike and also against the shock when shifting due to the solid shifting clutch dog, the shafts, gears and dogs began breaking. Eventually, Force realized the problem and developed a spacer to fill in for the shorter clutch hub. Later a thrust washer with an extension to fill in the space was developed and made available. Confusion about which thrust washers had to be used with which propellers has resulted in many broken drive shafts, gears and dogs until this day. For a detailed description of the problem and the various fixes go to Chrysler/Force Propeller Clutch Fiasco.

Contact Information

Mercury Marine (Force engines>Out of Production since 1999 – But some parts are still stocked)

Fond du Lac
Toll Free: 1-8
Contact Form:

Don’t try to contact this marine vendor via our website’s Comment system.
Comment Rule #9. It will be moderated and trashed. Please contact them directly.

Specifications For Chrysler/Force Outboards
2-Stroke Cycle Gasoline Outboards & L-Drives
(Features: Vertical Crankshaft and Boreable Parent Bore Cylinders)

⊗ = Data Not Available from Data Source. ? = …? = ¿…? = Data Unconfirmed.
BASE ENGINE: Manufacturer & Model of Base Engine.
DS = Data Source: Ma = Manufacturer. BD = = …B. Wik = Wikipedia.
^ …d = Directory. …w = Webpage. …y = Years Mfr’d History. …c = Catalog. …b = Brochure. …s = SpecSheet.
^ …o = Owner’s/Operator’s Manual. …m = Service/Repair/Technical/Workshop/Shop Manual.
^ …p = Parts Book/List/Manual. …h = History. …f = Forum. …1,2,3,A,B,C,etc = Source #, Version, Revision.
CYL: Cylinder Orientation & Configuration – (Dash w/no spaces) Number of Cylinders:
^ Cylinder Orientation: h… = Horizontal.
^ Cylinder Configuration: …S = Single Cylinder. …T = Twin Cylinder. …I = In-Line..
BORE & STROKE: …mm = Millimeters. …in = …” = Inches.
DISPLACEMENT: …cc = Cubic Centimeters (cm³). …L = Liters/Litres. …ci = Cubic Inches (in³).
BRAND: ^ = Base Engine Manufacturer. ⇒ = Engine Marinizer/Mariniser.
MODEL: Full Engine Model Number w/Codes – Rating.
^ EC = Engine Code. Cylinder Block Capacity ID Code.
ASP: Aspiration-Fueling: N = Naturally Aspirated. Petrol Fueled: C = Carbureted.
POWER: kW = Kilowatts. HP = Horsepower. BHP = Brake Horsepower. MHP = Metric Horsepower.
@RPM = Power Ratings @ Revolutions Per Minute.
YEARS MFR’d: Beginning-Ending. Trailing “–” (Dash) without an Ending Date = Still in Production.

Click on Model Links below for Detailed Specifications and “DS” (Data Source) Links to Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Manuals, Parts Lists, Articles, etc.

Model Manufacturer Model uI-⊗ ⊗cc / ⊗L / ⊗ci 19??-19??
Model Manufacturer Model uI-⊗ ⊗cc / ⊗L / ⊗ci 19??-19??


Manufacturer Model ? ⊗-⊗ ⊗mm ⊗mm ⊗in ⊗in ⊗cc / ⊗L / ⊗ci
⊗ − ⊗ ? ⊗-⊗ ⊗-⊗
⊗ − ⊗ ? ⊗-⊗ ⊗-⊗


Engine Documentation

Documentation with Bold Titles are part of our Academy Library!
To view the entire document, click on its Bold Title Link to go to our webpage for
that item and then scroll down to the “Academy Library” section on that page.

DOCUMENTATION TYPE: / TITLE (Data Source) — Author
SpecSheets/Data Sheets:
Charts and Graphs:
Press Releases (by Date = YYMMDD):
Model History:
Serial Number Guide (Manufacture Date Code Identification):
Installation Instructions/Manuals:
Installation Diagrams & Drawings with Dimensions:
OpManuals (Owner's/Operator's Handbooks/guides/manuals):
Parts Schematics with Exploded Views & Parts Lists:
Parts Bulletins:
Shop Manuals (Repair/Service/Technical/Workshop):
Wiring Diagrams:
Service Bulletins:
Product Recalls:

If you can help us add information, Catalogs, Brochures, Spec Sheets, Pictures, OpManuals, Parts Lists, Shop Manuals, etc. that we lack, please submit the info or link (or attach the PDF) via an email to the Thanks!

Forum Posts, Tech Notes & Tech Tips

Forum Posts:
Tech Notes:
Tech Tips:

If you think we should add a Forum Post, Tech Note or Tech Tip to this section, please submit the Link via email to the Thanks!

Publications & Media

Publications and Media with Bold Titles are part of our Academy Library!
To view the entire publication, etc, click on its Bold Title Link to go to our webpage for
that item and then scroll down to the “Academy Library” section on that page.

To help us alphabetize the lists below, the beginning grammatical articles
“The” & “A/An” have been moved to the end of the title. Example:

Title, The — Authors, etc.

ANCHOR‚ The — Anchors Aweigh Academy.
DIY Boat Owner — The Marine Maintenance Magazine.

CLICK HERE to donate a publication or video to our Academy Library.
CLICK HERE to view the directories of all publications and videos in our Academy Library.
If you know of a Publication, etc. that should be added to this list, just mention it in an email to:

Related EAB Webpages

Related Main Topic Pages with Links


to see examples of our website's comprehensive contents!

Thanks to our amazing contributors for the steady flow of articles, and to our dedicated all-volunteer staff who sort, polish and format them, everyday we get a little bit closer to our goal of
Everything About Boats. If you would like to submit an article,
see Submitting Articles.


Ford Industrial Power Products Diesel Engines
Ford 2715E
Lehman Mfg. Co.
Detroit Diesel 8.2
Universal Atomic 4
Chrysler & Force Outboards
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Allison Transmission
American Marine Ltd (Grand Banks)
Boat Inspection
Types of Marine Surveys
Marine Surveyors by Regions
Boat Builders By MIC
Beta Marine
DIY Boat Owner Magazine
USCG NVIC 07-95 Guidance on Inspection, Repair and Maintenance of Wooden Hulls

What our nonprofit Anchors Aweigh Academy and its website have accomplished so far.

  • Published over 300 website main topic webpages, many with full articles on the topic. See our Website Contents in the Right Sidebar for the listing of the main topic pages.
  • Published over 9,000 marine vendor webpages, all with their contact information, most with a description of their products and services, many with product documentation, specifications and independent reviews. (Includes: Boat designers, boat building tools, material and equipment manufacturers and suppliers, boat builders and dealers, yacht brokers, marine surveyors, boat insurers, boat transporters, skippers and crews, boatyards and marinas, yacht clubs, boat rentals and yacht charters, boating, seamanship and maritime schools, marine law attorneys and expert witnesses, boat refitters and repairers, book authors and publishers, and video producers)
  • Acquired over 120,000 pages of product documentation including Catalogs, Brochures, SpecSheets, Pictures, Serial Number Guides, Installation Manuals, OpManuals, Parts Schematics, Parts Bulletins, Shop Manuals, Wiring Diagrams, Service Bulletins, and Recalls. And have made all viewable to academy members through the EAB website.
  • Acquired over 1,200 books and magazine back issues in our academy library and so far have made over 700 viewable to academy members through the EAB website.
  • Published over 500 DIY How-To articles about boat design, construction, inspection, operation, maintenance, troubleshooting and repair. We are working hard to do more.

We are currently formatting and polishing the Anchors Aweigh Academy online and hands-on courses. The Marine Surveying course has proven to be excellent for both the beginner and the seasoned surveyor, and especially helpful to the Do-It-Yourselfer.

Current Academy Members must SIGN IN to gain FULL access
to this website including the Members' Comments & Reviews!

If your membership has expired, CLICK HERE to Renew.

CLICK HERE to discover how you can become a Member and gain FULL access to
thousands of expanded pages and articles, and dozens of excellent programs

Thank you for your support. You make this website possible.

Comments for Public Viewing

Submit any comments for public viewing via email

Please remember to put this webpage's title in the subject line of your email.
All comments are moderated before they appear on this page. See Comment Rules.

FROM Donald: "This is an awesome website. I found the information that I needed right away from one of the over 10,000 free articles that you provide as a public service. I'm surprised that so much if this site is free. But I still signed up so I could access the thousands of expanded pages, interesting articles, and dozens of valuable programs! The member's library of books, magazines and videos that I can view online is really terrific! I understand that you and your staff are all unpaid volunteers. Please keep up the good work. And I commend you for your plans to add another 10,000 free informative articles over the next year. I'm thrilled to support you in this endeavor with my small membership donation. Thanks again for all your hard work."

FROM Huey: "I agree with my Uncle, I too have found the articles to be very enlightening. They say that it will take about 50,000 articles to cover the full scope that they have envisioned for the website. They have over 10,000 articles so far and that's doing pretty well, but it could take several years to get the rest. I also noticed that many of the Main Topic Pages and some of the article pages are still in the rough draft stage. I guess that they will fill in as they can get volunteers to work on them. But what I can't figure out is why anyone would spend the time writing informative in depth articles just to give away free to this website for publication? What's in it for them?"

FROM Dewey: "Well Huey, to me It looks like most of the articles on this website are written by very informed people, like boating instructors, boat designers, boat builders, riggers, electricians, fitters, marine repair technicians and marine surveyors. Writing such articles helps establish them as knowledgeable professionals. After all, this website was originally created by a school for marine technicians and marine surveyors. The website is growing in content every day. They even had to move to a bigger, more powerful server on October 15, 2018 because the website's traffic has been growing exponentially."

FROM Louie: "I agree with everyone above. This site is quickly becoming the ultimate reference resource about every aspect of boats and ships for everyone from the beginning recreational boater to the seasoned professional mariner. I use the topic pages on the right sidebar to browse around the website. It's like a Junior Woodchucks' Guidebook for Boaters. Their Members' Library of over 300 popular and obscure books and over 200 magazine back issues that can be viewed online is fabulous. The Academy's magazine is especially informative. On top of that, there is the "Ask-An-Expert program for members where you can get an expert's answer to any of your boat questions. And a whole years membership is only $25. What a deal! I really love being part of this "Everything About Boats" community and help provide thousands of helpful articles free to the public. I think that I'll sit down right now and write an article about my experiences boating with my uncle."

FROM Scrooge: "You rave about this website like it was the best thing since sliced bread. Well, I think it stinks. Sure, it has a lot of good information for boaters, and they're adding more every day, but it will probably never be finished. Furthermore, I don't even own a boat. And I wouldn't have a boat even if someone gave me one. Boats are a waste of money and time and energy and money! They're just a hole in the water you pour money into. If you gave me a boat, I'd sell it quicker then you could say Baggywrinkle. Then I'd lock up the cash with all my other money so I could keep my eye on it and count it every day. Bah humbug."

FROM Daisy: "I'm just so glad that Donald got the boat so we and the boys could enjoy boating — together. And of course all of the girls, April, May, and June, love to be on the water too, especially when that is where the boys are. Oh poor Scrooge, boating is more fun then you could possibly imagine."

FROM Scrooge: "After seeing how much fun you all have on the water together, I regret that I didn't have that much fun when I was young. I've had a change of heart, and I'm giving each of you a Lifetime Academy Membership."

FROM Editor: "For those of you that have stayed with us this far, Thanks. You inspire us to keep working on this labor of love. We know that we have a lot more to do. Ultimately, we hope that we can help you enjoy the wonder filled world of boating as much as we do. We are all waiting to see what you have to say about this webpage article. And we assure you, your corrections, updates, additions and suggestions are welcomed. Let's work together on this.

FROM Name: Text.

Academy Members' Comments & Reviews
Academy Members must be signed in to post and view

This website welcomes our members Comments & Reviews, including any recommendations (favorable or not) based on their experience with the above marine vendor, boat equipment, article author, etc. Please see our COMMENT RULES as all Comments will be moderated before they appear on this page.